Bloggfćrslur mánađarins, ágúst 2013

Elsta málverkiđ sem sýnir skreiđ

Valckenier (2)

Mađurinn sem hér heldur á skreiđinni er Jan Jeliszoon eđa Jan Gilliszoon Valckenier, eins og hann kallađi sig einnig. Hansakaupmenn og Danir kölluđu hann Johann Valkner. Jan fćddist í bćnum Kampen á Norđur-Hollandi áriđ 1522. Međ honum á málverkinu er fjölskylda hans lífs og liđin. Frúin hans föl hét María Tengnagel, en saman áttu ţau 9 börn. Tveir drengir, sem dóu sem kornabörn, eru sýndir í hvítum kirtlum. Jan Valckenier andađist áriđ 1592.

Afi Jans Valckeniers hafđi veriđ fálkahaldari greifa nokkurs í hérađinu Brabant (sem er í suđurhluta konungsríkisins Hollands í dag) og af ţeirri iđju fékk ţessi fjölskylda nafn sitt. Út frá honum er komin mikil ćtt kaupmanna og er hús ćttarinnar enn til í Amsterdam.

Valckenier
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Hús Valckenier ćttarinnar í Amsterdam, afkomenda Íslandskaupmannsins Jans Gillissonar
 

Ţessi fasmikli mađur var mikill kaupahéđinn eins og margir Amsterdambúar. Ţađ vissu danskir konungar á 16. og 17. öld mćtavel. Danska krúnan átti í endalausu stríđi viđ Svía og ţurfti alltaf á fjármagni ađ halda. Jan lánađi Friđriki II peninga og kóngur ţakkađi fyrir sig međ ţví ađ gefa Jan réttinn til ađ versla međ fisk í Bergen, svo og til ađ stunda verslun og kaupmennsku á Íslandi og í Fćreyjum.

Verslun međ Íslandsfisk fćrđi erlendum kaupmönnum eins og Jan Gilliszoon mikiđ í ađra hönd. Skreiđ frá Íslandi, ţó ađ hún hafi lengi veriđ veriđ talin lélegri en skreiđ frá Noregi, var arđsöm vara. Kveldúlfur Ţórólfsson, fađir Skallagríms (og afi Egils ef einhver kannast viđ hann), mun samkvćmt Eglu hafa flutt skreiđ frá Hálogalandi til Englands. Ţetta var ađalútflutningsvara Íslendinga í aldarađir. Um miđja 16. öldina var veriđ ađ flytja skreiđ og votsaltađan fisk frá Íslandi alla leiđ suđur til Kanaríeyja og Madeira, og voru ţar á ferđinni hollenskir kaupmenn, sem sóttu t.d. fiskinn á Snćfellsnesi og viđ Breiđafjörđ. Kaupmađurinn Adriaen Pauwels í Rotterdam seldi t.d. áriđ 1657 20.000 pund af íslenskri skreiđ til Pedro Flaemuels kaupmanns í Teneriffa

Hvort ţetta er léleg Íslandsskreiđ sem Jan Valckenier heldur á, eđa einn af ţessum ţorskum sem hefur norsku ađ móđurmáli, er óvíst. Fćreysk var skreiđin varla, ţví ekki ţekktu fćreyskir frćđingar og ţýskur "sérfrćđingur" Fornleifastofnunnar Íslands ţennan handhafa verslunar á eyjunum ţegar nýlega var rituđ grein um verslun útlendra manna í Fćreyjum (sjá hér). Skreiđin var ađ minnsta kosti bođleg forfeđrum ESBlinga í dag, og komust ţeir mjög snemma á bragđiđ og berjast nú út af minnsta tittlingi sem í sjónum syndir. 

Bakgrunnurinn á málverkinu af Valckenier fjölskyldunni á ađ sýna Bergen (Björgvin), ţar sem Valckenier bjó um tíma. Jan Valckenier heldur á skreiđ, einu eintaki af ţví sem Hollendingar kölluđu stokvis, og í hinni hendinni heldur hann á leyfisbréfi danska konungsins Friđriks II til ađ stunda verslun í Noregi, Fćreyjum og á Íslandi.

Ţetta mun, ađ ţví er ég best veit, vera elsta málverk sem til er af skreiđ. Smelliđ 2-3 sinnum međ músinni á myndina til ađ stćkka hana (gćđin eru ţví miđur ekki góđ). Málverkiđ tilheyrir Rijksmuseum í Amsterdam, en hefur lengi hangiđ ađ láni í sýningum borgaminjasafns Amsterdam. Hvort ţađ er uppiviđ í augnablikinu veit ég ekki.

Enn sćkjast útlendingar í íslenskan fisk. Ţeir eru eins og menn vita vel ólmir í hann, og héldu víst um tíma ađ ţeir fengju hann framreiddan upp á silfurdisk af auđmjúkum, íslenskum krataţjónum í ESB. Nú eru ţeir draumar brostnir og ţeir eru međ stćla. Ástandi er fariđ ađ minna dálítiđ á fyrri aldir, ţar sem ţeir börđust á banaspjót út af ţeim gula.

Íslendingar framleiđa nú og flytja út rúm 18 ţúsund tonn af skreiđ á ári. Verđmćtiđ á ţeirri afurđ áriđ 2012 nam um níu milljörđum íslenskra króna. Ţađ munar um minna.

Norsk eđa íslensk skreiđ?

Ţótt íslendingar hafi fram eftir öldum veriđ ađ merja skreiđ međ sleggjum eins og steinaldarmenn, ţá kunnu menn suđur í Evrópu ađ framreiđa ţennan herramannsmat. Skreiđin er klofin og hryggurinn fjarlćgđur. Fiskurinn er settur útvötnum í saltvatni í viku. Ţar sýgur fiskurinn í sig vatniđ og verđur hvítur og fallegur. Ítalir kunna enn ađ elda skreiđ á annan hátt en Afríkumenn. Eitt sinn  fékk ég í Napoli skreiđ, sem sögđ var norsk. Hún hafđi veriđ lögđ í vatnsbađ, og var borin fram í tómatsósu sođinni á lauk, lárviđarlaufi og ólífum, sem og međ bökuđum kartöflum. Ţađ er međ betri sođningu sem ég fengiđ. Ţađ var sama hvađa hvítvín var boriđ fram međ ţeim rétti. Allt vín verđur gott međ slíkum herramannsmat.

Einu sinni ţótti skreiđ góđ vara, ţótt Íslendingar hafi aldrei skiliđ ţađ og hafi setiđ og bariđ skreiđina međ steinsleggjum gegnum aldirnar. Nú er einungis stefnt ađ ţví ađ koma skreiđinni illa unninni til Nígeríu, ţar sem hún er mauksođin međ banönum og öđru sem ég kann ekki ađ nefna.

Norđmenn kunna hins vegar ađ selja ţessa góđu vöru og ţannig og flokka Norđmenn sína bestu skreiđ:

Sorting categories - First Class Lofoten Cod

Ragno, 60 cm over

WM, Westre Magro 50/60 (thin Westre), 50-60 cm

WM, Westre Magro 60/80 (thin Westre), 60-80 cm

WDM, Westre Demi Magro 60/80 (semi-thin Westre), 60-80 cm

WDM, Westre Demi Magro 50/60 (semi-thin Westre), 50-60 cm

GP, Grand Premiere, 60-80 cm

WC, Westre Courant (ordinary Westre), 75-80 fish per 50 kg

WP, Westre Piccolo (small Westre), 100-120 fish per 50 kg

WA, Westre Ancona, 75-80 per 50 kg

HO, Hollender (ordinary Dutch), 58-60 fish per 50 kg

BR, Bremer, 50-55 fish per 50 kg

Lub, 40-45 fish per 50 kg

Á vefsíđu Norwegian Fishery Village Museum skrifa ţeir: 

No other country can compete with this way of conserving good food. Many have tried, none have been too successful - like Iceland, for instance, who completed their final trial year in 1992.

http://www.lofoten-info.no/nfmuseum/history/stockfsh.htm

Ekki veit ég hvađa plokkara Norsarar eru ađ sletta á okkur ţarna, en montiđ hafa Íslendingar greinileg fengiđ frá Noregi.

Viđ kunnum enn ekki ađ auglýsa góđa vöru og fara vel međ fisk. En hugsiđ ykkur ţegar fariđ verđur af framleiđa "Grindavico Demi Courant, Sec du Sec, 80 cm", eđa "Grand Amsterdammer de Rif", Premiere Stocca 60-90 cm", og ţví ekki " Langanes Septentrionale Grande Giallo di Islanda" og " Islandico Superiore", svo ekki sé talađ um "Quota Maximo Bianca di duocente miglia dei Norte". Hćgt vćri ađ opna safn eins og Norđmenn hafa, "Museu dello Stoccafisso", og besta fiskinn ćtti ađ kalla "Come gli 77 Pesce di Cristo" í stađ "Lagos magos" sem nú er seldur.

Ţađ er greinilega ekki veriđ ađ hugsa um gćđin á fiskinum sem sést á myndinni hér fyrir neđan.

Fiskur á bíl er verri en fiskur í kös
Illa er fariđ međ skreiđ á Íslandi, enda er henni bara hent suđur til Afríku

8. getraun Fornleifs

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Nú verđur aftur brugđiđ á leik og spurt um forna hluti og gulnađa.

Vissuđ ţiđ ađ getraunir setja í sumu fólki í gang sams konar ferli og hjá spilafíklum? Sel ţetta ekki dýrara en ég keypti. Ţess vegna er ég ekki međ neinn vinning í ţessari getraun, nema heiđurinn. Hann er ávallt sćtur og eldist aldrei. Ég ćtla ekki ađ leiđa lesendur bloggsins út í neinar ógöngur.

Ykkur veikgeđja getraunafólki er hér međ sýndur lítill bútur af málverki. Spurningarnar eru:

1) Á hverju heldur höndin á myndinni?

2) Hverjum tilheyrir höndin?

3) Á hvađa tíma var eigandi handarinnar uppi?


Merkir fundir í Surtshelli

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Kevin Smith, bandarískur fornleifafrćđingur, sem einu sinni lenti í afar ógeđfelldri ófrćgingarherferđ vegna áhuga síns á Íslandi, er sem betur fer enn ađ vinna viđ fornleifarannsóknir á landi okkar. Herferđ ţeirri, sem ég skýri betur frá síđar, var stýrt af Thomas H. McGovern prófessor í New York sem skrifađi bréf út um allar jarđir til ađ koma í veg fyrir ađ Smith grćfi á Íslandi og til ađ gera lítiđ úr menntun og getu Smiths sem frćđimanns. Kevin Smith varđ ţví um tíma eins og útilegumađur međal allra ţeirra útlendinga sem stundađ hafa fornleifafrćđi á Íslandi.

Ţví er gott ađ sjá ađ Kevin, sem ég hef kynnst lítillega, er á réttum stađ, í Surtshelli, sem er örugglega stađur ţar sem útlagar og útilegufólk hafa aliđ manninn. Í sumar hefur Kevin Smith ásamt fríđu fylgdarliđi gamalla karla fundiđ nokkra merka grip í mjög ţunnu gólflagi í hellinum, m.a. krosslaga hlut.

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"Krossinn" in situ

Velta menn ţví nú mjög fyrir sér á kjaftaklöpp verkefnisins hver kyns sé. Í fjölmiđlum hefur Guđmundur Ólafsson starfsmađur Ţjóđminjasafnsins velt vöngum yfir ţví, hvort útilegumenn eđa hellisbúar hafi veriđ kristnir eđa ekki. Ég býst nú viđ ţví ađ Guđmundur sé ţar ađ velta ţví fyrir sér, hvort "dótiđ", sem hann svo gjarnan kallar fornminjar, sé frá ţví eftir ađ Kristni var lögleidd á Íslandi eđa fyrir ţann tíma, ţ.e.a .s. fyrir 1000, eđa ţar um bil.

Ég leyfi mér ađ hafa skođun á ţessu. Krossinn sem fundist hefur í hellinum er ađ mínu mati met (lóđ) úr blýi til ađ setja á reislu (vog). Slíkir blýkrossar hafa fundist í leifum eftir norrćna menn á Bretlandseyjum og ađ sjálfsögđu í Skandinavíu.

Kross úr blýi međ innlagđri koparţynnu, sem er úr blýi, hefur t.d. fundist í heiđnu kumli í Vatnsdal í Patreksfirđi sem ég hef skrifađ um (sjá hér).

Krossinn í Surtshelli og hinir gripirnir, sem líklega eru líka lóđ frá "víkingaöld". AMS-geislakolsgreiningar sem gerđar hafa veriđ á dýrabeinum úr hellinum sýna dvöl manna í hellinum um 900 e.Kr. Varast ber ţó ađ taka AMS-aldursgreiningar bókstaflega, ţar sem AMS-aldursgreiningar og hefđbundnar C-14 geislakolsaldurgreiningar gerđar á sömu fornleifunum (sýnunum) geta oft gefiđ mjög mismunandi niđurstöđur, ţótt ađ sýnin séu úr sama trénu, dýrabeininu eđa mannabeini (Sjá hér).

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Mér ţykir ţó líklegt ađ ţeir gripir sem fundist hafa í hellinum séu frá 10. öld og ađ ţarna hafi Ţorvaldur Ţórđarson Holbarki, bróđir formóđur minnar Herdísar Ţórđardóttur (ţau vöru tvö nítján barna Friđgerđar sem var barnabarn Kjarvals Írakonungs og Höfđa-Ţórđar Bjarnasonar og líklega tvíburar), týnt metum sínum. Ţorvaldur fćddist samkvćmt mér langtum fróđari mönnum áriđ 915, eđa eins og segir í Landnámu (Sturlubók):

Ţorvaldur holbarki var hinn fjórđi [son]; hann kom um haust eitt á Ţorvarđsstađi til Smiđkels og dvaldist ţar um hríđ. Ţá fór hann upp til hellisins Surts og fćrđi ţar drápu ţá, er hann hafđi ort um jötuninn í hellinum. Síđan fékk hann dóttur Smiđkels, og ţeirra dóttir var Jórunn, móđir Ţorbrands í Skarfsnesi.

Fornleifafrćđingarnir í Surtshelli kalla Ţorvald af ókunnum ástćđum Ţorkel og segja hann líka "hólbarka". En segjum nú (í gamni) ađ ţetta séu met Ţorvaldar ćttingja míns. Ţá hefur hann veriđ ţarna um 935-40, á bestu árum sínum í sönglistinni og drápuflutningi, enda annálađur hálfírskur tenór. Hvađan haldiđ ţiđ ađ söngást Skagfirđinga sé annars ćttuđ? 

Ţetta er spennandi rannsókn hjá Kevin og Co., en ţekking manna á ţví menningarlega umhverfi sem ţeir eru ađ rannsaka mćtti oft vera ađeins meiri en raun ber vitni.


Ţýski krossinn

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Hvernig getur ólögulegur, íslenskur móbergshnullungur orđiđ ađ helgum krossi?  Fyrst ađ krossi úr "engilsaxneskri kristni", og nú síđast ađ krossi frá" Hamborg eđa Bremen"? 

Í skrám Ţjóđminjasafnsins er hćgt ađ lesa ţetta um stein sem fannst á Ţórarinsstöđum í Seyđisfirđi: Steinkross úr móbergi. Veđrađur. Upphaflega jafnarma og óreglulegur ađ lögun. Lögun bendir til uppruna úr engilsaxneskri kristni.

Skođar mađur svo greinargerđ um uppgröft á Ţórarinsstöđum frá 1998, ţegar "krossinn" fannst, er ţessu slengt fram:

"Steinkrossinn sem fannst viđ uppgröftinn er trúlega elsti tilhöggni krossinn sem fundist hefur hingađ hér á landi. Hann er höggvinn í móberg og er um 45 cm hár. Krossinn hefur stađi norđan viđ nyrđri langvegg stafkirkjunnar, á undirstöđu úr torfi og grjóti. Hann er jafnarma og nokkuđ óreglulegur í lögun eins og títt hefur veriđ međ krossa sem eru tímasettir til mótunarára kristninnar í Norđur-Evrópu."

Hér vitnar höfundur skýrslunnar ekki í neitt, en hnykkir ţess í stađ út einhverju rugli fra hoften eins og Danir segja. Engin röksemdafćrsla var fyrir ţví ađ ţetta vćri kross međ engilsaxnesku lagi. Engin sönnun liggur fyrir ţví, ađ ţetta sé yfirleitt kross og ađ hann sé ţar ađ auki frá Brimum eđa Hamborg.

Hvernig veit Steinunn Kritjánsdóttir ađ ţetta hafi veriđ "jafnarma" kross? Ţessu ber henni ađ svara og sanna, áđur en áfram verđur haldiđ međ endalaust rugl og óra.

Stone-crossCredulus

Móbergs"krossinn" frá Ţórarinsstöđum í lit og ţegar hann fannst áriđ 1998.

En nú hefur Steinunn Kristjánsdóttir sent ţennan hnullung, sem hún fann á Ţórarinsstöđum í Seyđisfirđi, á sýningu í Paderborn í Westfalen (sjá hér og hér). Sýningin er um Kristni og ber heitiđ CREDO. Samkvćmt fréttum lćtur dr. Steinunn nú fylgja ţá sögu međ móbergssteininum, ađ hann sé frá Hamburg-Bremen. Ef menn suđur í Paderborn trúa ţví, ţá ćtti frekar ađ kalla sýninguna CREDULUS (auđtrúa).

Ekki nóg međ ađ ţetta órökstudda rugl fćr ađ fjúka í skýrslum og doktorsritgerđ Steinunnar frá Gautaborg. Steinunn vitnar í einni rannsóknarskýrslu sinni í fund brots af tilhöggnum steini sem hugsanlega er af krossi eđa grafsteini, og sem fannst viđ rannsóknir mínar ađ Stöng í Ţjórsárdal. Fundur sá er ekki eldri en frá 11. öld. Á ţeim steini sést ađ hann hefur veriđ höggvinn vandlega til og lagađur af einhverjum sem kunni til verka. Steinunn vitnar í grein eftir mig, ţar sem hvergi er sagt ađ brotiđ sé frekar úr krossi eđa grafsteini. Hvergi skrifa ég, ađ brotiđ sé frá síđari hluta 10. aldar eins og Steinunn heldur fram. Hvernig leyfir Steinunn Kristjánsdóttir sér ađ líkja hrođahnullungi sínum, án nokkurra sannanna fyrir ţví ađ hann hafi veriđ mótađur af manna höndum, viđ vandlega tilhöggvinn stein fundinn á Stöng í Ţjórsárdal? Ţađ eru afar óvönduđ vinnubrögđ. Vonandi kennir hún ekki öllu ţví fólki sem lćrir fornleifafrćđi í HÍ slíka ađferđafrćđi.

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Brot úr steini sem fannst í kirkjugarđinum á Stöng í Ţjórsárdal, minjum sem Minjastofnun Íslands vinnu nú leynt ljóst ađ ţví ađ koma í veg fyrri frekari rannsóknir á međ byggingu stórhýsis í haciendastíl ofan á rústunum. Lesa má meira um steininn hér og hér. Tilgátuteikninguna neđst skal slá međ mjög mörgum varnöglum. Ljósmynd og teikning Vilhjálmur Örn Vilhjálmsson.

 

Ólögulega, veđrađa smákrossa, sem erfitt eđa ógjörlegt er ađ aldursgreina, er ađ finna víđa um Evrópu. Enginn ţeirra er úr móbergi. En "krossinn" frá Ţórarinsstöđum hefur ekki stađiđ og veđrast gegnum tíđina eins og ţeir krossar. Hann er jarđfundinn. Ţetta er mjög mjúkur íslenskur móbergssteinn, sem mylst úr viđ minnsta átak. Ég leyfir mér ađ efa ađ ţetta sé yfirleitt kross. Á honum er ekkert mannaverk ađ sjá.

Menn hafa áđur ţóst finna mjög forna krossa á Íslandi, jafnvel úr harđari efni en móbergi, og er ţessi saga kannski ágćt til ađ minna á ţađ.

Hvernig er ţá hćgt ađ fara međ ólögulegan móbergsstein til Paderborn og láta fólk trúa ţví ađ hann sé kross? Jú, ef ímyndunarafliđ er sterkt og sjálfblekkingin mikil er greinilega hćgt ađ segja allt á Íslandi og jafnvel líka í Ţýskalandi (muniđ ţiđ Icesave?). Ţannig innistćđulaus fornleifafrćđi er greinilega kennd í Háskóla Íslands.

Ţađ sem Steinunn hefur ekki fundiđ á Skriđuklaustri: Grćnlenskar konur, Fílamađur, lásbogaör. Allt er hjóm og vitleysa og úr lausu lofti gripiđ. Annađ, augljóst efni rćđur hún heldur ekki viđ (sjá hér). Sama er tilfelliđ međ hnullunginn viđ "stafkirkjuna" á Ţórarinsstöđum. sem fannst á torfi, ţar sem ekki var torfkirkja?? Ég er reyndar ekki viss um ađ Steinunn hafi fundiđ undirstöđur stafkirkju á Ţórarinsstöđum. Rústir voru ţarna mjög raskađar og ég tel ađ torf hafi upphaflega veriđ utan um eđa í tengslum viđ steinhleđslu ţá sem túlkuđ er sem undirstađa undir stafkirkju.

Mađur verđur ađ spyrja. Hvenćr hćttir ţessi ćvintýrafornleifafrćđi Steinunnar Kristjánsdóttur? Ţorir enginn ađ andmćla ruglinu? Verđur ekki ađ hafa samband viđ einhvern í Paderborn og ađvara ţá sem nú tilbiđja ţar móbergshnullung frá Íslandi, ţví íslenskur fornleifafrćđingur hefur fengiđ ţá flugu ađ ţetta sé ţýskur kross - úr ţessu fína Seyđisfjarđarmóbergi? Er enginn endi á vitleysunni?

Ach mein Lieber, ţetta er ađ mati Fornleifs ekki ţýskur kross sem ţeir suđur í Paderborn hafa fengiđ frá Íslandi, heldur óáfallinn ćvintýrakross úr silfri úr Austfjarđarţokunni eđa kannski bara illa farinn hundasteinn sem hundar hafa veriđ tjóđrađi viđ svo ţćr kćmust ekki inn í guđs hús og migu á altariđ. Mér hefur enn ekki tekist ađ finna mynd af steininum in situ (á fundarstađ) eđa á teikningum, en hann  mun hafa stađiđ "norđan viđ nyrđri langvegg stafkirkjunnar."

Lesiđ ţessa grein um hringlaga kirkjugarđa og óundirbyggđa kenningu Steinunnar og annarra um ađ torfkirkjur séu arfleifđ frá Bretlandseyjum međan ađ stafkirkjur séu skandínavísk uppfinning.


Danish Holocaust Distortion

Danish historian Bo Lidegaard is busy advertising his new book, which will be published in no less than five languages in the fall.

The monologue of Bo Lidegaard on this YouTube video is a sales promotion for the strange historical perception adapted by some Danish historians in later years, who among other things believe that Nazi Collaboration of the Danish authorities was the main reason for the rescue of most of the Danish Jews to Sweden in 1943. This argument is usually rather lacking in reasonable documentation.

I have written a response to Bo Lidegaard, which can be read and downloaded here :

 

The Jews who were deported from Denmark 1940-43

A consequense of the WW II Collaboration Policy in Denmark

A comment by Vilhjálmur Örn Vilhjálmsson, Ph.D.

As a reader of most of Bo Lidegaard's books during the past 10 years, wherein he has used every opportunity to praise the collaboration policy (Samarbejdspolitikken) in Denmark during WWII, I have never seen any mention of the Jewish refugees, among them children, whom the Danish authorities expelled to Nazi-Germany from 1940 to 1943.

The crimes againt Jews and other stateless individuals, were among the "highlights" of the Danish collaboration policy, which Lidegaard on the contrary argues rescued Danish Jews in 1943. He is quite wrong. The Danish authorities were from 1940-43, the haydays of the collaboration, in most cases far more eager to get rid of Jews to Germany than the Nazi-autorities were to receive them. Anti-Semitism was not any less the order of the day in Denmark than it was elsewhere in Europe.

In 2005, the results of my many years of research into the fate of stateless Jews in Denmark were published. When my book, Medaljens Bagside (The Other Side of the Coin), was released, the Danish Prime minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen, presently the General Director of NATO, presented an apology to the few surviving relatives of the expelled Jews from Denmark, most of whom were killed in camps in Germany and Poland.

platz2

Ernst Platzko, a businessman from London/Vienna, was expelled from Denmark in 1940 and killed in Sachsenhausen in 1942.

Fogh Rasmussen also presented a general apology to the Jewish People for the crimes of Nazi-collaborating Danish officials during WWII. However, in 2004 and 2005 Bo Lidegaard and likeminded scholars were busy bashing Fogh Rasmussen for his public critical stand on the collaboration of Danish Politicians and Political Parities with the Nazis during WW II. 

Danish food exports, another "highlight" of the collaboration during WWII, helped feed the Wehrmacht on the frontlines and those who engaged in the killing the Jews of Europe. The Danish Collaboration did in fact not rescue any Danish Jews. If anything, it aided  the killing of Jews in Europe.

Carol Janeway, of the Alfred E. Knopf Publishers, the publishing house which holds the rights to Dr. Lidegaard's book outside Denmark, has in the Danish daily Politiken (which Bo Ledegaard is the editor in Chief of) stated that:

"She believes that if one in France and the Netherlands had manoeuvred oneself half as well through the war as did the Danes, WW II had not been quite so bleak"

(http://politiken.dk/kultur/ECE1959244/historie-om-danske-joeder-gaar-verden-rundt/).

This actually sounds like the well known mantra of a loud-shouting group of Danish historians, who want to make the world believe that Danish political collaboration with the Nazis was something that all Danes wanted, and that the collaborating politicians were heroes who rescued Jews. We must bear in mind that Carol Janeway also promoted another revision of history: The memoirs of the Swiss citizen Bruno Grosjean, who hoaxed his childhood memories and created an alter ego, Binjamin Wilkomirski, to fool the world into believing he was a child survivor of the Vilno Ghetto and Auschwitz. Her judgement on European WWII history is far from sound. The children in the ghetto in Vilno were killed with calories from Danish bacon and with collaboration of Lithuanians who were eager to help annihilating their fellow citizens if they were Jews.

A57 B 67

A: Szymon Zajtmann, a Polish born merchant from Hamburg, expelled from Denmark in 1941. Killed by gassing in Bernburg euthanasia asylum in Bernburg. B: Dr. Stefan Glücksman, a historian from Warsaw, was expelled from Denmark in 1941 and killed in the SS-camp of Gross-Rosen.

Now, according to Lidegaard and his American publishers, we are supposed to believe that the Danes, as the only nation in Europe, found some kind of a special cure, a unique response to the Holocaust, by collaborating and being nice to the Nazi occupants.

This new whitewashing of Danish Nazi collaboration can easily be viewed in parallel to the trend we are witnessing in other parts of Europe. In the Baltic states, praising of the local politicians and perpetrators, who collaborated with the Nazis, is seen as a virtue because the murderers of Jews also represent the fight against Communism and the Soviet oppression. In the Baltic, where anti-Semitism is persistent, the distortion of history equalizes the Holocaust with the Soviet terror and the fate of Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians under Soviet Rule.

The Danes were lucky compared to the Baltic States. There was only one invader and one occupant, and according to Lidegaard the ultimate luck was that resistance was limited and collaboration was great. However, Lidegaard forgets in his self righteous monologue, to tell us that Danish Nazi collaboration and exports helped the killing machine of the Third Reich to prolong the murder of millions of people in Europe. And Carol Janeway seems unable to see that if other and more important countries under siege had behaved like Denmark, the outcome might very well have been a permanent Third Reich in reality.

22

A Danish State Prosecutor and perpetrator, Harald Petersen, Minister of Defence after WWII, was one of many leading officials who was engaged in the collaboration policy of expelling stateless Jews from Denmark 1940-43. After the war nearly all of the white collar criminals, anti-Semites and xenophobes of the The Ministry of Justice, the State Police and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who engaged in the expulsion of Jews and other stateless persons from Denmark during WWII achieved fine careers, up to the highest offices of the state. No one asked questions about their crimes, which the modern authorities tried to hide as late as 2001.

47

German Political refugees being deported to Germany by the Danish authorities and Danish Police in 1941. Many of these men, who were imprisoned in the Danish Horserřd internment camp north of Copenhagen lost their lives in concentration camps. Jewish prisoners in Horserřd in 1941 were spared deportation and hard Danish effort to get rid of them,  only because the German authorities did not wish to receive them.

122

Danish Police officials frolicking with German Gestapo officers at a Copenhagen hotel.

120

A Danish policeman (in the middle) of the Immigration Police fraternising with Nazi spies in 1936. The German on the left was sentenced to death for war crimes in Norway, while the Gestapo-officer on the right, Hans Hermannsen of Flensburg, who was an officer of the Sicherheitsdienst in Denmark during the German Occupation made Danish authorities' wishes for expulsion of unwanted individuals possible. After the war he worked for the Danish Police Intelligence Service as well as for American forces in Hamburg.

3132

Schulim and Ruth Fanni Niedrig, a young couple which the Danish authorities expelled to Germany in 1940. In 1943 Ruth Fanni was bitten to death in Auschwitz by dogs. Schulim, who was actually born in the town of Oswiecim, managed to survive in Auschwitz, being one of few survivors from Danish expulsions of Jews from Denmark 1940-43.

I love you
 
33b

The envelope of a romantic love letter from Schulim to Ruth Fanni, when they were imprisoned before their deportation to Germany in July 1940. Schulim added a heart and wrote "I love you". The official censorship added all the writing in red and blue pencil: "because letters with such contents will not be delivered to his wife". Ruth Fanni never received the letter.

II

Lidegaard presents us with a narrative of a Jewish mother, written in past-tense (which indicates that it was written after the war), and a list of things for her children to bring with them to Sweden. But we must not forget another Jewish mother in Denmark: Brandla Wassermann.

Brandla Wassermann managed to flee from Berlin with her three young children to Copenhagen in late October 1942. She was a slave labourer in a Berlin factory called Fermeta. She and her three children were helped and accompanied to Copenhagen by a Danish citizen, who did it out of the good of his heart - one of the real Danish heroes. When in Copenhagen she was helped by other ordinary Danes, but a Danish policeman, a fervent Nazi, who received her at the Central Police Station, sent her back with the consent of higher officials and a government minister. Within a month her children, Ursula (7), Jacky Siegfried (5) and Denny (2) had been gassed in Auschwitz.

88

Jacky Siegfried Wasserman didn't find his safe haven in Denmark - and didn't make it to Sweden in 1943.

Brandla was executed by an injection of phenol into the heart in Auschwitz on 15 December 1942. The only list which we have, instead of a list of items for her children to bring with them to Sweden, is the list by the Berlin authorities, of the few belongings in Brandla Wassermann's appartment in Keipelstrasse 41 which were expropriated to compensate for the rent she didn't pay when she was in Copenhagen.

Thanks to the Collaboration Policy, and to Bo Lidegaard for not telling us the story of Brandla Wassermann and her three children which didn't fit his glorification of Danish Nazi Collaboration!

Not all Danes, as Lidegaard would like you to believe, collaborated with the Nazis. Brave, ordinary Danes helped rescue Jews to Sweden, while the Danish Government collaborated and participated in the destruction of Jews.  

III

The Danish daily Politiken, which Bo Lidegaard is the Editor-in-Chief of today, was publishing all through the Nazi occupation of Denmark. The daily and most of its journalists followed the safe and golden rule of Danish Nazi collaboration.

On 7 September 1941 Politiken brought a news release from Danish news agency Ritzau, which originated from the German News agency DNB (Deutsche Nachrichtenbüro), where the introduction of the legislation for the yellow star in Germany was announced. The legislation was introduced on the 1st of September 1941 and was active for certain parts in the Reich from the 19th of September 1941 - but not in occupied Denmark. Despite the irrelevance for Denmark, the Danish daily Politiken announced the introduction of the yellow star to brand Jews 10 days before the decree was active in the state of the occupants.

Moreover, the journalist at Politiken added his private view to the news release, which didn't originate from the original decree and which certainly doesn't harmonize with the Danish "Countryman" ideal now being promoted by Lidegaard: "From what one has learned  in connection with this decree, it has been caused by certain experiences, which made it appear desirable to make the Jews easily recognizable for anyone in public". 

On 30 March 1940, 10 days before the Nazis occupied Denmark, the Danish government passed a law making it criminal to hide a Jewish refugee in private homes. One of the "key player" of the collaboration with the Nazis and thus one of the people behind the rescue of the Danish Jews according to Lidegaard was the initiator for that legislation. That politician was social democrat Hans Hedtoft-Hansen who after WW II became the Prime minister in Denmark (1947).  Hedtoft-Hansen argued in the Danish parliament: "The change in § 3 for punishments for those who help to keep foreigners hidden from the police, may sound harsh, but anyone who considers the condition that we today have in this country must recognize its necessity. Where the right of asylum for political
emigrants are recognized in such an extent that is the case in Denmark, there is no occasion for real political emigrants to keep hiding and not at the Danish fellow citizens to contribute to this."

132
Sentenced for hiding a Jew, the father of her son. Margrét Vigdís Árnadóttir and Thor Daiel Schlesinger. Photo from Medaljens Bagside.

Margrét Vigdís Árnadóttir, The Icelandic mother of Thor Daniel Schlesinger received a sentence based on this legal "reform". She received a sentence of 60 days in prison, which was altered to 5 year suspended sentence. Her crime was to hide the father of her son, Fritz Schlesinger, a German Jew. Fritz Schlesinger was killed in Auschwitz in 1943 after he was expelled and deported to Germany - by the Danish authorities. Thor Daniel Schlesinger died of cancer in Iceland at the age of nine, and one of Lidegaard's heroes, Hans Hedtoft-Hansen, became the prime minister of Denmark, now praised as one of the great Danish collaborationists who according to Lidegaard made the rescue of the Jews in Denmark possible.


IV

Bo Lidegaard's argument that the Danish Jews were jolly good "Countrymen" and equals of the Danes is a modern myth in the making. If the Jews were perceived as Countrymen, why were Danish born Jews, who had settled and married i Germany not helped, when they and their Danish families desperately sought permission to return to their families in Denmark?  In their cases one never sees the term Countryman in use. All af the Danish Jews, who in 1938-1940 couldn't return home to their native Denmark, were all killed in the Shoah.

20  
In 1939 Emilie and Richard Eichwald were living in Hamburg. They had rescued their three sons to England, whereto they sent this photograph of themselves. Emilie and her sister Selly (nee Levinsky) were both born into a family of furriers in Copenhagen. They were not "Countrymen, when they were in need. The sisters were deported to Minsk in Belorus where their traces vanish.

 

In 1945 many Danish Jews were in fact applying for Alyiah, emigration to Israel, partly due to the negative attitude to the Jews and Israel in Denmark. One of the applicants was a young man, Bent Melchior, an 8th generation descendent of a Danish Jewish family. Bent Melchior later became the chief Rabbi of Denmark. In 1947 his father, Rabbi Marcus Melchior, tried to get the Danish authorities to allow the Jews on the Jewish Agency ship Exodus with 4500 Jewish refugees on board, who were denied passage to Palestine by the British, to go ashore in Denmark. The Danish authorities were totally negative to the request and referred to the fact that there were already 85.000 "displaced" Germans in Denmark. Instead the "passengers" of Exodus were placed for a while in two prisoner camps near Lübeck in Germany.

Register

Bent Melchior's application to make Aliyah in 1946. From Medaljens Bagside (2005)

At the same time stateless Jews, who had fled from Denmark to Sweden in 1943 were ordered by the Danish authorities to leave Denmark with a very short notice. Even a Jewish survivor who was expelled to Germany in 1942, and who made it back to Denmark in 1945, was imprisoned so he couldn't tell his story. It wasn't told until 2005, because the Danish authorities for many year prevented historians who researched the fates of Jewish victims in Denmark in researching all relevant aspects of WWII in Denmark. At the same time Danish neo-Nazis bogus researcher got unlimited access to archives on Danish SS-volunteers, which the neo-Nazis removed systematically in large quantities from the National Archive in Copenhagen to sell to fellow fanatics. 

After WWII the relatives of Jews who had been expelled from Denmark 1940-43 received incorrect information about their relatives' expulsions from Denmark. Some received the information that their family members, who had been killed in Germany and Poland, had of their own free will moved to Germany during the war. 

That was the country in which the Jews were Countrymen. Who is Bo Lidegaard trying to fool?

V

The story about the flight of the Jews from Denmark in 1943, which Dr. Lidegaard is publishing in the USA, Germany, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands is different in details from the story he has published in the Danish version of his book. In the first section of the Danish version of his book, Countrymen (Landsmćnd), Lidegaard presents misinformation about the expulsions of stateless Jewish refugees from Denmark from 1940 to 1943. Lidegaard writes, and refers incorrectly to my book Medaljens Bagside [The other side of the coin] that the Germans demanded those expulsion. That is entirely wrong. 

After this statement in the Danish volume of Countrymen, one can read footnote 12, where Lidegaard starts by referring to a WWII "When, What and Who" that was published in 2002, which provides absolutely no information on the expulsions of Jews. My book on the subject was published in 2005. In Fact, none of the Jews, who were expelled from Denmark 1940-43, were expelled on the orders, demands or wishes of the German occupants. The crime was committed by Danish officials, eager to please the Nazis, as well as some of the Danish collaborationists politicians, who Lidegaard has turned into the rescuers and beneficiaries of Jews.

Worse still is when Lidegaard in the German version of his book has completely removes the mention of the Danish expulsions of refugee Jews from 1940 to 1943. Footnote 12 is also missing. In the English version he wrongly argues that the Nazi occupants demanded the expulsion of the Jews. Is the book beeing promoted for different taste in different countries? 

The purpose of the many foreign language versions of his book and the deliberate selection of the sources is now becoming clearer to me. Dr. Lidegaard has published a white-wash of the Danish WWII record for the Danish Foreign Ministry, a purification of the Danish WWII record. He propagates that the entire Danish society was helping Jews. His reason to blame the German occupants for the expulsion of Jews from Denmark from 1940 to 1943 in the Danish version of his book, and the reason why he e.g. doesn't mention in the foreign language versions that 40.000 Danish men (1% of the population) volunteered to join the Waffen-SS is evident. That and much more does not fit the Danish WWII ideal society he is trying so hard to create. Dr. Lidegaard uses available sources very selectively. He presents horrible events like the Danish expulsions of Jews and other refugees to his Danish readers in a wrong an inappropriate frame, while he totally removes that saddest event of Danish Jewish history from his English speaking spectators - who might of course discover that something regarding the authenticity of the Picture Lidegaard is trying to paint is all wrong.

Such are the working ethics of one of the leading historians of Denmark. Lidegaard begins his book with a quote from William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar:

Friends, Romans, Countrymen lend me your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him

the evil that men do lives after them;

The good is oft interred with their bones; ... 

*

There is obviously still something rotten in the State of Denmark.


Further reading

Medaljens Bagside published by Vandkunsten Publishers (http://www.forlagetvandkunsten.dk/93655/)

Rescue, Expulsion, and Collaboration: Denmark's Difficulties with its World War II Past (http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-vilhjalmsson-f06.htm)

The stand of the Simon Wiesenthal Center

The King and the Star:

"The King and the Star" I Bastholm Jensen, Mette & Jensen, Steven B. (Ed) Denmark and the Holocaust. Institute for International Studies, Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2003, 102-117.  

"Christian X og jřderne: Hovedrolleindehavere i dansk krigspropaganda". Rambam 19, 2010, 68-85. English Summary. 

KingStar

Menntaskólaminningar

Latin America Vilhjálmur 1979 

Áriđ 1979, á haustönninni sem ég lauk stúdentsprófi í MH, var ég svo heppinn ađ njóta leiđsagnar Sigurđar Hjartarsonar sagnfrćđings og sérfrćđings um sögu Rómönsku Ameríku, og ređur. Í söguáfanga um ređur (Ređur 115), fyrirgefiđiđ, um sögu Suđur Ameríku, bauđst nokkuđ fjölbreyttum hópi 12 nema ađ útbúa lítiđ kver um Suđur Ameríku. Kveriđ gáfum viđ út og seldum. Ţetta var mjög skemmtilegt verkefni og Sigurđar minnist mađur fyrir vikiđ sem eins af betri kennurum sínum á lífsleiđinni.

Rómanska Ameríka
Haliđ bókina niđur (ţađ tekur tíma)

 

Ţar sem kveriđ er orđiđ mjög sjaldgćft, hef ég skannađ ţađ til ađ leyfa fólki ađ sjá hvađ menntskćlingar í MH voru ađ bauka međ Sigurđi Hjartarsyni áriđ 1979. Verkfćrin voru ritvélar,  skćri, lím og letrasett. Ţetta var nú ósköp litađ af óhörnuđum skođunum manns á ţessum tíma. En ég stend viđ textann sem ég skrifađi og skođanirnar, enda var Sigurđur ekki međ neina tilburđi til hugmyndafrćđilegs áróđurs. Ef eitthvađ var, ţá var ég, sjálfur borgarskćruliđinn, líklega róttćkari en Siggi.

Saga Rómönsku Ameríku er blóđi drifin og auđvelt er ađ verđa byltingarsinni ef mađur leggur ţá sögu fyrir sig.

Fyrir utan textasmíđ og heimildarannsóknir, teiknađi ég tvćr pólitískar teikningar í bókina, sem ég leyfi ykkur ađ sjá. Ég fann nýlega frumteikninguna af ţeirri sem er efst. Ég skammast mín heldur ekkert fyrir ţćr. Ţćr sýna einfaldlega stađreyndir.

Dollardtango Vilhjalmur 1979
Í dag hefđi ég frekar kallađ ţennan dans Tango Dollar

 


Sólin skín úr norđri

Horft til norđurs
 

Kristín Sigurđardóttir forstöđumađur Minjastofnunar Íslands auglýsir enn ruglingsleg áform sín um ađ reisa suđrćna villu ofan á órannsakađar rústir á Stöng í Ţjórsárdal. Nú síđast í fréttum RÚV.

Greinilegt er ađ Kristín, sem allra mest ber ábyrgđ á hinum alrćmda skrípaleik kringum Ţorláksbúđ, er til í enn eina vitleysuna. Síđan Kristín fékk upphaflega hina ćringjalegu hugdettu sína (og annarra) um ađ nota 700.000.000 króna í endurbćtur á Stöng (sjá hér, hér og hér) hefur veriđ haldin hugmyndasamkeppni um skýli yfir rústina. 

Vinningstillagan fyrir nýtt skýli á Stöng er algjörlega út í hött og er miklu verri lausn en ţađ skýli sem nú er yfir Stöng. Vinningstillagan var svo forkastanlega vitlaus, ađ ein tillögumynd ţeirra sem unnu samkeppnina sýnir sýn ađ Stöng, ţar sem sólin skín úr heiđi eins og á póskorti - en úr norđri.

Á engu stigi mála hefur Kristín Sigurđardóttir haft samband viđ mig, en ég hef rannsakađ rústir á Stöng meira en nokkur annar. Ţessi vinnubrögđ hjá forstöđumanni Minjastofnunar eru forkastanleg og sína dómgreindarleysi og einhvern persónulegan brest, jafnvel einhvers persónulegt hatur í minn garđ. Forstöđumađur Minjastofnunar, sem á ađ fylgja lögum um minjavernd, brýtur ţau hér vegna ţess grafhýsis sem hana dreymir um ađ reisa yfir vinnubrögđ sín.

Í fréttinni á RÚV í gćr upplýsir Kristín Sigurđardóttr, ađ rústin ađ Stöng sé ađ eyđileggjast. Hún talar um skýliđ sem nú er yfir Stöng sem ţađ eina sem byggt hefur veriđ. Ţađ er eins og margt annađ í máli Kristínar eintóm ţvćla.

Sjáiđ hins vegar myndirnar međ fréttinni á RÚV. Rústin hefur greinilega aldrei veriđ í betra ásigkomulagi. Ţakka ber ţađ viđgerđum sem gerđar voru á 10. áratug síđustu aldar, sem aldrei var lokiđ almennilega viđ m.a. vegna skussaháttar Kristínar Sigurđardóttur ţegar hún var yfir Fornleifavernd Ríkisins. Nú sé ég hins vegar ađ búiđ er ađ klćđa rústina í framhaldi af ţví sem gert var árin 1994-96, en ekki var ţađ gert í samvinnu viđ ţá sem ţađ verk unnu.

Kristín talar um vandann af hrossum í rústinni. Ţetta er ekki nýtt vandamál og var t.d. greint frá ţví hér, í greinargerđ sem ég sendi Fornleifavernd Ríkisins um áriđ um fyrri viđgerđir á Stöng. Á ţeirri stofnum, sem nú hefur veriđ lögđ niđur, var Kristín yfirmađur, og svarađi ţegar hún stjórnađi ţar aldrei athugasemdum mínum um ruglingsleg áform sín á Stöng, ađ mér forspurđum. Ţurfti ég ađ fá Úrskurđarnefnd um Upplýsingamál til ađ hjálpa henni viđ ađ upplýsa um máliđ  (Sjá hér).

 Pallur hylur rústir kirkju á Stöng

Kristín Sigurđardóttir er mjög hrifin af sólarpöllum og útsýnisţökum. Undir draumasólarpalli hennar, austan skálarústarinnar yngstu, mun kirkjan og kirkjugarđurinn á Stöng hverfa og flata ţakiđ yfir rústinni mun aldrei bera ţann mikla snjóţunga sem í sumum árum getur orđiđ Ţjórsárdal. Hvernig á ađ leiđa vatn frá slíku ţaki,  sem er á stćrđ viđ körfuboltavöll?

Kristín greindi ekki frá ţví í fréttunum í gćr, ađ nýja suđrćna villan og pallarnir, sem alls ekki henta sem vörn fyrir rústina vegna hins mikla, flata ţaks (sem mun ekki ţola snjóţungann og regn, sem arkitektarnir gera augsýnilega ekki ráđ fyrir), mun koma í veg fyrir frekari rannsóknir mín á kirkjurúst, kirkjugarđi og smiđjurúst. Ţessar rústir hef ég haft löngun til ađ ljúka rannsóknum mínum á. Nú kemur Kristín Sigurđardóttir endanlega í veg fyrir ţađ međ áformum um ađ reisa ţetta glaprćđi ofan á rústirnar. Kristín Sigurđardóttir hefur alltaf ćtlađ sér ađ eyđileggja rannsóknaráform mín á Stöng og hefur vísvitandi greint rangt frá rannsóknarniđurstöđum ţar á alls kyns skiltum sem hún hefur komiđ fyrir á Stöng.

Margar tillögur ađ skýlum fyrir Stöng í Ţjórsárdal voru betri en sú sem hreppti 1. verđlaun í samkeppninni (sjá hér). 1. verđlaunin gćtu hentađ vel yfir rústir í S-Evrópu. Best ţótti mér tillaga Arnars Birgis Ólafsson landslagsarkitekts, sem ţví miđur er gerđ mjög slćm skil í greinargerđ samkeppninnar. Lokaverkefni Arnars í námi sem landslagsarkitekt í Kaupmannahöfn var frágangur rústa á Stöng og hönnun skýlis. Hann hafđi fyrir ţví ađ hafa samband viđ ţann ađila sem rannsakađ hefur á Stöng í Ţjórsárdal. Ţađ hefur greinilega veriđ taliđ honum og tillögu hans til lasts. Hinir arkitektarnir sjá vart sólina fyrir sjálfum sér í sínum tillögum, ef hún skín ţá ekki beint úr norđri eins og hjá ţeim sem 1. verđlaun hrepptu. Meirihluti tillagnanna er vart gerlegur líkt og vinningsverkefniđ.

Ćtlar fornleifaráđuneyti Sigmundar Davíđs virkilega ađ setja peninga í óúthugsuđ verkefni, ţar sem lög eru brotin međ ţví ađ byggja nýbyggingu ofan á órannsakađar rústir, og ţar sem nýbyggingin hylur rústir og kemur í veg fyrir rannsóknir?  Á ekki ađ hlusta á ţá sem best ţekkja til ađstćđna á Stöng áđur en lagt er út í slík verkefni?

Ég vona ađ Sigmundur Davíđ setji frekar fjármagn í rannsóknir á Stöng, svo mér takist ađ ljúka ţar rannsóknum áđur en Kristín Kristín Sigurđardóttir eđa eftirmađur hennar fćr svo ađ byggja grafhýsi sitt ofan á friđađar minjar. 

En í landi, ţar sem sólin skín úr norđri, er víst hćgt ađ komast upp međ hvađa vitleysu sem er. Ég er vonlítill um ađ tekiđ verđi tillit til fornleifanna, ţegar ţjónkun viđ ferđamennskuna er talin áhugaverđara viđfangsefni en vitneskja um fornleifarnar. Einssýnt ţykir mér ţví ađ Kristín Sigurđardóttir hafi, međ ţví ađ halda fornleifafrćđingum međ Ţjórsárdal sem sérsviđ fyrir utan áform um úrbćtur á Stöng, sett lokapunktinn yfir rannsóknum á Stöng međ hjálp RÚV. 

Nú vona ég bara ađ Sigmundur Davíđ stöđvi loftkastala Minjastofnunar og kynni sér máliđ, áđur en fé verđur dćlt í hreina vitleysu. Ţađ er of dýrt fyrir Íslendinga.


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