Frsluflokkur: Gyingar slandi

Julius A. Leibert, fyrsti rabbninn slandi

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Fyrsta trarathfn slandi eftir a kristinn siur var upp tekinn slandi ri 1000, var haldin rmlega 941 rum eftir formlega kristnitku Alingi. a var trarsamkoma gyinga og a urfti heimsstyrjld til a n tr vri iku essu menningarlega einsleita landi okkar.

A llum lkindum kom fyrsti rabbninn sem stri trarlegri athfn slandi vegum Bandarkjahers til slands. a var haustmnuum 1942. Hann ht Jlus Amos Leibert og var nokku merkilegur karl og talsmaur ntmalegs gyingdms, reformed Judasism. Leibert hafi aeins komi tvisvar ea risvar til slands er nokku ruggt a hann s fyrsti rabbninn sem jnai sfnui gyinga slandi. ykir mr v rin sti til a minnast hans, v hann var allan htt mjg merkilegur maur.

Zelig Lebedko fddist i Lithen

Julius Amos Leibert fddist ekki sem Bandarkjamaur. Hann var eins og margir arir Bandarkjamenn ftkur innflytjandi hinu stra landi. Innflytjendur leituu anga til a bta kjr sn og stundum til a fora sr fr ofsknum og vsum daua vegna ofskna heimalandi snu.

Leibert fddist Lithen ann 20. mars ri 1888. Sumar heimildir herma a hann hafa fst egar ri 1885; Og a hann hafi me vilja veri yngdur skjlum til a eiga betri mguleika a v komast til Bandarkjanna. Er Julius fddist, heyri Lithen undir rssneska keisaraveldi.

Julius Leibert var ekki a nafn sem essum fyrsta rabbna slandi var gefi Lithaugalandi. Drengnum var gefi hi gyinglega nafn Zelig, og ttarnafni var rssneskum stl, Lebetky, en um aldamtin 1900 var hann einnig skrur sem Zalkan Lebedko (Lebedky og einnig Lebedkin sem eru nfn sem afleidd eru af ha Levi).

Zalkan fddist bnum Kedainiai, litlum b sem gyingar klluu Keidan jiddsku. Keidan er ekki mjg langt fr Kaunas, sem gyingar klluu Kovno (sj grein um frgarfr mna eim b hr).

Nafn Lebedky-ttarinnar hefur a llum lkindum einnig veri skr lithsku, egar hn var leyf sem tunguml Kedainiai. Um a leyti sem Zelig fddist lgu Rssar bltt bann vi notkun lithsku. Menn voru fangelsair ea myrtir, prentuu eir svo miki sem stafkrk v mli.

Foreldrar Zalkans Lebedkos voru au Chaim HaLevi Lebedky (ca. 1851-1936), sonur Itzik HaLevi Lebedkys (1806-1888), sem var sonur Dov (Berel) HaLevi Lebedkys (1751-1806). Mir hans var Leya ea Ley (Leah), fdd Weintraub (1848-1902). Mir Zelig Lebedky d r krabbameini maga ri 1902 og Chaim andaist skmmu sur. ri 1904 flutti Zalkan/Zeug til Bandarkjanna samt 6 systkynum snum. Systkynin htu Morris, og systurnar htu (Fanny) Feige Elle sem sar giftist Weinstein. Arar systur voru Bluma Magil, sem flutti til Kanada, Esther Feldman sem bj New York, Rachel Sager og Molly Moskowitz sem bjuggu Los Angeles.

Bandarkjunum breytti Lebetky hinn ungi, lkt og margir hans sporum, um nafn og ht upp fr v Julius Amos Leibert. Systkini hans tku einnig etta nja nafn. Rabb Leibert sagi sar sjlfur fr, a Leibert-nafni hefi hann teki til a fagna v frelsi 'Liberty', sem honum hlotnaist Bandarkjunum. Leibert lktist Liberty a hans mati

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Samkunduhsin Kedainiai

egar Zalkan/Julius fddist, voru margar synaggur, bnahs og gyinglegir sklar Kedainiai. Sj bnahs seinni hluta 19. aldar. Meirihluti ba bjarins lok 19. aldar voru gyingar. Gyingar settust fyrst a bnum 17. ld og brinn var mikilvg trarmist og lrdmssetur, og ekki aeins fyrir gyinga. Skoskir mtmlendur settust ar einnig a. dag eru varveittar tvr fallegar byggingar fr 19. ld Kedainiai sem fyrir helfrina voru samkunduhs. au eru i dag notu sem sfn bjarins. Kaidan var einnig ekkt fyrir framleislu sna agrkum (srsuum grkum) og var brinn og nsta ngrenni helsti framleiandi agrka baltnesku lndunum.

Fyrir 1920 hafi gyingum fkka mjg Kedainai. Margir trair gyingar flu anga fr Pllandi og Hvta Rsslandi ri 1939, en eftir a jverjar komu til bjarins lok jn 1941 myrtu eir fram til gstbyrjunar sama r 325 gyinga bnum. Aftkurnar fru fram tveimur skgum umhverfis binn og a me dyggri hjlp margra heimamanna. eir gyingar Kedainai sem eftir lifu og smuleiis 1000 gyingar fr minni orpum ngrenninu voru myrtir vi na Smilaga. ar var flki lti grafa skuri, snar eigin grafir. a var skoti stanum, lk eirra rnd og san heyg skurunum.

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Gyingum Keidainai smala saman til aftku

a verur v a viurkennast a Helfrin heppnaist vel Lithen me dyggum stuningi heimamanna. okkar tmum drka margir Lithar moringjana sem jhetjur og er af v MIKIL SKMM egar eir ramma rlega um gtur strstu bja Lithens me fullu leyfi yfirvalda. Breytt hefur veri um nfn gtum og r hafa sari rum fengi nfn gyingamoringjanna.

Vinsll rabbni faraldsfti

Ferill Leiberts sem rabbna Bandarkjunum var mjg langur og spannai allt fr 1915 fram yfir 1960. Maurinn var mikill vinnujarkur og gat raun aldrei sest helgan stein.

Julius A. Leibert stundai nm a kappi landi mguleikanna. Framhaldsnm stundai hann vi Hebrew Union College i Cinncinati Ohio undir prfessor Julian Morgenstern. Morgenstern var einn af af fremstu gufringum og stofnendum Union of American Hebrew Congregations (UAHC), hreyfingu sem sar var kllu Union for Reform Judaism (URJ) . Julius Leibert lauk rabbnanmi snu ri 1915, en fyrir utan gufrinmi lagi hann stund laganm. Sm hl uru nminu vegna herjnustu Leiberts fyrri heimsstyrjld. Hann jnustai sem rabbni bandarska hernum, en fr aldrei til takasva Evrpu.

Fyrsta embtti hans eftir jnustu hernum sem rabbni mun hafa veri vi Beth El samkunduhsi Scott, South Bend i Indiana og sar Aavath Shalom sfnuinum Indianapolis.

Julius Leibert kvntist ri 1919. Kona hans ht Leona Goodmann (1896-1971),

Um rtugt fkk hann embtti vi ntt samkunduhs, Emanu-El borginni Spocane i Washingtonfylki, ar sem honum var mjg vel teki og honum og konunni var gefinn bll ri 1920 sem akkltisvottur fyrir vel unnin strf. Feruust hjnin vtt og breitt blnum um vesturhru Bandarkjanna.

Leibert lt miki til sn taka Spokane, m.a. vi byggingu ns samkunduhss og var mjg virkur starfi fyrir ungmenni. Hann lt einnig sr heyra opinberlega og oft urfti v a halda v essum slum var miki gyingahatur sem arir Evrpumenn, . . m.lterskir Svar hfu flutt me sr rkum mli fr gamla landinu. Spokane starfai Leibert fr 1919 til 1923.

1923 til 1928 jnai Leiberts Temple Israel Langasandi (Long Beach) Kalifornu og um tma Temple Emanuel Los Angeles.

lok rs 1930 var Leibert tilnefndur kapelln fyrir Hollywood Legion 43, sem var 43. deild American Legion sem eru samtk fyrrverandi hermanna. essi deild var talin ein strsta deild herdeildarinnar. Sem melimur af varalii yfirmanna tti hann efnilegastur til a gegna essari heiursstu.

Leibert starfai einnig CCC, Civil Conservaton Corps, ar sem ungmenni fengu nytsama vinnu vi msar framkvmdir hinu mikla atvinnuleysi 4. ratugarins. Leikarinn Walther Matthau mun eitt sumar sem unglingur hafa veri vinnu ungra gyinga undir stjrn Leiberts og fr leikarinn frgi fgrum orum um a sumar. Myndin hr fyrir nean er fr haustinu 1935 er Leibert stjrnai njrsht fyrir gyinga sem unnu fyrir CCC. Nokkrir kollegar Leiberts r prestasttt bandarska hersins tku einnig tt. Leibert er annar fr vinstri.

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ri 1933 venti Leibert snu kvi kross og starfai mestmegnis um tma sem lgmaur Los Angeles og oftast fyrir ltilmagnann. En svo braust sari heimsstyrjldin t og Leibert fr aftur bning kapelnsins (chaplain) Bandarkjaher.

Til slands kom Leibert ri 1941

Julius Amos Leibert var Army Chaplain og major a tign fr 1940 og sar lieutenant colonel og starfai hann Bandarska hernum fram til sla sumar 1945. Hann feraist va innan Bandarkjanna sem og og utan strrunum, og meal annars til slands. Til slands kom hannhausti 1942. Til a byrja me hfu gyingar herjum Breta og Bandarkjamanna ekki me sr rabbna (sj hr og hr). Samkomur fru fram undir stjrn kantora ea eirra sem best voru a sr helgisium gyingdms.

msar heimildir eru til um komu hans 1942 er hann stjrnai nrsht (Rosh Hashanah) og frigingadegi (Jom Kippur), en helstar r upplsingar sem fram koma blai Bandarkjahers The White Falcon. Skemmtilegustu lsinguna fyrstu heimskn Leiberts er hins vegar a finna Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle 23. oktber 1942 dlki Boris Smolin, Between YOU and ME:

And here ar regards from the Jewish boys in Iceland and Greenland - Chaplain Major Julius Leibert of the U.S. army, who is stationed at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, Mo., has just returned from a special overseas mission. - He conducted services in Iceland on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. - More than 800 Jewish soldiers attended these services, among them, at least 40 officers and men of the RAF - On his way back from Iceland, Major Leibert conducted services for Jewish soldiers in Greenland and Labrador. - This is perhaps the first time in recorded history that organized Jewish services have been held in these far-flung northern outposts. In Iceland Major Leibert found two Jewish families, one of the refugees.

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Yfirmaur herja Bandarkjanna slandi, Charles Bonesteel heimstti sfnu gyinga slandi hausti 1942. Myndin byrtist The Daily Times Tribune i Alexandria Indiana december 1942. Maurinn me gleraugum til hgri vi hershfingjann er enginn annar en Julius Leibert.

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Sama mynd, en skorin The Edwardsville Intelligencer (Edwardsville, Illinois), 18, ma 1944. Sj einnig Morgunblai.

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ri 1943 tk rabbni a nafni William H. Rosenblatt vi trarhaldi meal gyinga slandi og sar starfai landinu rabbni sem ht Abraham Goldstein. Oft tku flttamenn af gyingattum, sem fengi hfu a setjast a slandi lok 4. rtugarins, a taka tt eim samkomum.Einn eirra sem mest kom til bnhalds og strri hta var Hans Mann. Hans (sar Hans Jakobsson) fkk og notai lengi bnabk (siddur) sem Bandarkjaher gaf t strsrunum. Fjlskylda slenskrar konu Hans hefur vinsamlegast leyft mr a nota mynd af bkinni sem er n eirra eigu.

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Gyingar hittust til bnahalds msum stum Reykjavk og ngrenni borgarinnar. White Falcon ri 1945, m sj msa stai: 6. mars 1946 var t.d. bnahald Finley skla (Day Room) kl. 11.00. rijudegi var gusjnusta Davis Theater kl. 18.00, White Rose Hall Theater Reykjavk klukkan 19.30 og Turner Kapellu smuleiis kl. 19:30. Laugardaginn 10. mars var gusjnusta skrifstofu rabbnans Dailey-bragga kl. 11:00.

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ur en Leibert kom til landsins, s Benjamin Feldman um a all fri smasamlega fram.

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Gyingar og Henrdik Ottsson ri 1945.

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Leibert, annar fr vinstri aftari r, rstefnu rabbna hernumvi Harvard hskla ma 1943.

Eftirstrsrin

Eftir sari heimsstyrjld jnai Leibert msum sfnuum Bandarkjunum, bi fstum stum og afleysingum. Hann var Pensacola Florda (1951-1954), sar Anchorage Alaska, San Luis Obispo, Eureka og San Rafael (1956-57) og Santa Cruz (1957-58) Kalifornu.

Jlus og kona hans settust um tma a Marin County ri 1956 og byggu ar upp sfnuinn Rodef Sholom og hann kenndi einnig trarbragasgu vi menntaskla Marin. En ar staldrai hann heldur ekki lengi vi, tt meiningin hefi veri a setjast ar a og njta vikvldsins. nnur og n verkefni biu vallt essa eldhuga.

Fangelsispresturinn Leibert 1954-57

Julius Leibert tk ri 1954 a sr slusorgarstrf fyrir gyinga sem voru fangar San Quentin fangelsinu. Hanngegndi einnig strfum sem kapelln fangelsunum Folsom og Alcatraz, og ar fyrir utan jnai hann flugst hersins Hamilton (Hamilton Air Force Base).

Strf Leiberts sem fangelsisprests voru mjg athyglisver og honum var mjg annt um rttindi fanga sem bandarsk yfirvld reyndu a brjta og niur. ri 1957 sagi hann starfi snu lausu vi San Quentin fangelsi. a geri hann vegna rstings fr yfirvldum. Hann var einn eirra Gus manna sem neita harlega a gangast undi lygamlaprf. Yfirvld vildu a slusorgarar fangelsum ltu upplsingar t sem fangarhefu hugsanlega tra prestum snum fyrir. Julius Leibert lt essi or falla vi brottfr sna r fangelsiskerfinu:

"If the word of a man of God is not enough - be he rabbi, priest or minister - he might just as well take of his clerical gown and bury them".

Hann sagi enn fremur:

"I resent the thought of having mechanical means testing my credibility".

Leibert skrifai me hjlp Emily Kingsbery bkina Behind Bars, What A Chaplain Saw in Alcatraz, Folsom & San Quentin . Bkin, sem kom t ri 1965, snir verk og hugsanir manns sem mat ll mannslf jafnt og dmdi ekki menn sta dmi egar eir hfu egar veri dmdir brjlislega lngum og hrum dmum hinu miur rttlta og jafnvel sjka rttarkerfi BNA, ar sem vsvitandi hefur veri trampa rtti minnihlutahpa jflagsins; kerfi sem fleiri og fleiri slendingar virast ahyllast.

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A loknum strfum gu fanga, jnai Leibert sfnui Santa Cruz, en gat egar hann "komst aldur" fyrir enga muni sest helgan stein. Hann hf n a leia gusjnustur Reno Nevada. Hann var fyrstur rabbna ns safnaar eirri borg. ri 1964 gaf hann sfnuinum (Temple Sinai) sna eigin Torahrllu, sem er enn notu. Mark Davis uppeldissonur Sammy David jr., (sem teki hafi gyingatr eftir blslys), las upp r er hann var fermdur (Bar mitzvah) Reno ri 1973. Um Nevada skrifai Leibert, sem var maur andlegs frelsis: Nevada is the only state that has shed hypocrisy by allowing liberal attitudes.

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Leibert me fyrsta bar mitzva-drengnum (fermingabarninu) Temple Sinai Reno 1964. Hann heitir Stephen Jaffe og br enn Reno.

Julius Leibert andaist ri 1968 og hvlir vi hli konu sinnar Leonu grafreit gyinga Hills of Eternity Memorial Park Colma, San Mateo County Kalifornu.

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Hfundur: Vilhjlmur rn Vilhjlmsson, aprl 2017

Fyrri frslur um fyrstu samkomur gyinga slandi:

Fyrstu trarsamkomur gyinga slandi

The first Jewish services in Iceland 1940-1943

akkir/Thanks: to Josh and Jeff Weinstein, New York.


Jews are still not welcome in Iceland

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Last weekend I attended Mr. Felix Rottberger's birthday party. My good friend Felix, who is the first Jew born in Iceland, celebrated his 80th birthday. The birthday party was not held in Iceland but in Germany. His parents fled from Berlin to Iceland in 1935, later to be expelled by Icelandic officials in 1938.

Only a few people in Iceland fought openly for the rights of the family to stay there. Among them was a Danish diplomat, the first secretary in the Danish embassy in Reykjavik, C.A.C. Brun, who managed to delay the expulsion of the family to Germany and prevent that the family was shipped back to Germany in 1938. The Icelandic Government prepared a letter in Danish and German to the Danish authorities, in which the government announced that if Denmark didn't want the Jews expelled from Iceland in Denmark, Iceland would pay for their further deportation to Germany.

img_3149b.jpgThe exile in Denmark was not a very hospitable one either. Finally in 1955 after years of post-war harassment by Danish authorities Felix' parents Hans and Olga Rottberger moved to Germany with all their children and settled in Konstanz in the South of Germany. Later Felix moved to the city of Freiburg near the border to France and Switzerland, where he worked for decades as the caretaker of the old Jewish Cemetery in Freiburg.

When I received my invite to Felix Rottberger's birthday Party in August, I immediately began trying to get Iceland to invite Felix and his wife Heidi to Iceland to visit the country that expelled him at the age of two.

Felix, who is man of no great means, has as a devout Jew a longing to visit the grave-sites of his grandmother Helene Mann and her son and brother of Felix' mother, Hans Mann. My intention was for Felix to see the good things happening in the country which could not accept him 78 years ago and among other things to meet with the Jews living in Iceland.

The newly elected president of Iceland, historian Guni Th. Jhannesson, was immediately prepared to invite the Rottbergers to a reception and a grand dinner at his residence south of Reykjavk when they come to Iceland. However, an Icelandic president is not a man with the same power in the Icelandic society as the president of the USA or France have in their countries respectivly. The office of the Icelandic President is a tiny institution with a very limited budget. Thus the president advised me to contact the Icelandic government, i.e. the Foreign Ministry. I immediately wrote to the foreign minister, Mrs. Lilja Dgg Alfresdttir, who asked her permanent secretary to respond. The ministry on behalf of the government in office condition such an invite by handing the responsibility for it to the University of Iceland, where in the view of the ministry there should be held a conference in connection with an invite to Felix Rottberger.

When the media in Iceland are at the same time reporting about a record bad financial situation for Icelandic Universities, such an conference and invitation to Felix Rottberger wasn't anything which could be arranged in the nearest future. And a conference on what is the Foreign office thinking about, one must ask? Whom to blame for expelling Jews from Iceland in the later 1930ies? We know all the details. The research has clarified the crimes. The political parties responsible, and in office at that time, where the very same parties which are in office today.

Maybe someone is eager to discuss who was most anti-Semitic, the Independence Party (Sjlfstisflokkur) or the centre-right liberal Progressive Party (Framsknarflokkur). Actually members of both parties were in the 1930s well inspired and fascinated by the Nazi ideology, and in the post-War period even members of a small Icelandic Nazi party were incorporated in the Independence Party. Some of the former Nazis where promoted to important and high positions in Icelandic post-WWII Society.

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Felix, with the black hat and his Israel-tie, surrounded by his siblings, relatives, children and grandchildren in Freiburg on 24 September 2016. All photos by Vilhjlmur rn Vilhjlmsson.

The coming elections for the Icelandic parliament (Alingi), at the end of October, were triggered after the fall of Prime-Minister Sigmundur Dav Gunnlaugsson, after he and his wife were exposed in the Panama Papers revelation as major Icelandic owners of off-shore assets well hidden from the tax office of the Icelandic welfare state.

The former PM, who is hoping for a swift come-back after the Panama Paper scandal, has blamed his fall on an international conspiracy lead by the Jewish business magnate George Soros. The blaming-it-on-George Soros - phenomenon is widely seen in Nazi and right extreme circles. Now Soros is also to blame for the moral perversion of a former Icelandic Prime Minister. The present foreign minister, who could not see the moral importance in inviting a Jew who was expelled from Iceland 78 years ago supports the candidate for the PM-office in the coming election, who blames his own cock-ups on Soros.

Could it be that Foreign Minister Mrs. Alfresdttir also believes that George Soros was behind the alleged conspiracy against the former Prime Minister? At least she now openly supports a person who is in the habit of blaming his mistakes on a Jewish businessman and a Holocaust-survivor.

There will be another government after the present one, which I sincerely hope will invite Mr. Rottberger to Iceland. Let's hope that a new government doesn't condition an invite for Mr. Rottberger with a seminar on the situation in Gaza.

Icelanders must learn to take collective responsibility for past mistakes and not blame all things bad which happen in Iceland on foreigners and the surrounding world. The blaming game, and in particular blaming the foreigners, and in extreme cases blaming the Jews for home-made mishaps, seems to be the main weakness of the Icelander, whenever there is the slightest trouble or crisis on the home front.

Icelander expelled Jews in the 1930s and have since than had a very strict and reclusive immigration policy were the "uniqueness" of the population has been seen as one of the arguments for admitting as few new settlers as possible. In 1939 one heard the same arguments for expelling the Rottberger-family as one hears for not admitting Syrian war-refugees today.

Since Icelanders, all 330.000 of them, are so unique and so eagerly want to play a role among the nations (which is also a phrase not so seldom heard), why not publicly apologize for the bad treatment of Jewish refugees in the 1930s and let an old man feel that he is welcome in Iceland after all the years of official silence since his family was cast out of Iceland in 1938?

The warm-hearted nature and wits of Mr. Rottberger is something Iceland would have benefited from if he had been allowed to become an Icelandic citizen. There is still time to become acquainted with him. Iceland can in fact still learn a lot from the world which surrounds it. People elsewhere are not so different from Icelanders.

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Photo Vilhjlmur rn Vilhjalmsson

On 4 October 2016 Felix Rottberger will be decorated by the German president Joachim Gauch with the Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in Berlin. Felix receives this honour for his lifetime efforts to educate about the Holocaust and the fate of the Jews in Germany. That mitzvah has become one of the most important ones in Felix Rottberger's life. Now Felix can call himself a "Ritter" (Knight) - A Knight of the Holocaust education and remembrance: Such knights are important in times where so many people try to forget or distort the memory.

From theweb of the German President

Felix Rottberger, Freiburg im Breisgau
Verdienstkreuz am Bande

Der ehemalige Mitarbeiter der jdischen Gemeinde in Freiburg hat sich als Zeitzeuge bei der Erinnerungsarbeit groe Verdienste erworben. 1935 flohen seine Eltern vor dem NS-Regime zuerst nach Island, wo er geboren wurde, 1938 mit ihm weiter nach Dnemark. Dort musste er sich getrennt von seinen Eltern verstecken und lebte in stndiger Angst, entdeckt zu werden. Um die Auswirkungen von Rassismus und Nationalismus zu verdeutlichen, geht Felix Rottberger seit langem in Schulen und Begegnungssttten, diskutiert mit jungen Menschen ber die Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und schildert eindringlich das Verfolgungsschicksal seiner Familie. Zudem bietet er fr Schulklassen und Gruppen immer wieder Fhrungen in der Synagoge und auf dem jdischen Friedhof in Freiburg an, bei denen er auch anschaulich jdische Sitten und Gebruche vermittelt. Mit seinem groen persnlichen Einsatz hat Felix Rottberger in Freiburg eine besondere "Kultur des Miteinander" geprgt.


Ritter Rottberger

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grkveldi sat g eftirminnilega afmlisveislu Felix Rottbergers Freiburg am Breisgau Suur-skalandi, er hann hlt upp 80 ra afmli sitt. Reyndar var afmlisdagurinn ann 16. sl. en veislan var haldin gr samkomuhsi austurhluta Freiburg ekki allfjarri heimili Felix, en hann br hsi eigu gyingasafnaarins Freiburg sem stendur vi grafreit gyinga, ar sem hann starfai lngum sem umsjnar og gslumaur.

Sj nlega frslu um Felix hr

v miur gat g ekki frt honum gjf fr slandi, nema gott bo fr forseta slands, Guna Th. Jhannessyni sem er reiubinn a opna dyr snar og bja til veislu til heiurs Felix Bessastum. a er gott til ess a vita a flttamenn su einnig velkomnir ar b. a ttu slendingar a muna sem hatast t flttamenn ntmans og muna a eir heyrast i oft fara me smu hatursyrin um flttamenn okkar tma og au fkyri sem fllu um gyinga slandi 4. ratug 20. aldar.

v miur gatslenska rkisstjrnin ekki boi Felix nema a stinga upp v a a yri gert tengslum vi Hskla slands, sem er vitaskuld fjrsvelti og hefur engin tk a bja mnnum nema afyrirvari s gur. Utanrkisruneyti stakk upp rstefnu. Um hva, mtti maur spyrja? Kannski um hverjir voru meiri nasistar Framsknarflokkurinn ea Sjlfstisflokkur 4. ratug sust aldar. a er rf spurning. Svari er einfalt og arfnast ekki rstefnu. Gyingahatarar voru til bum flokkum og jafnvel einnig Aluflokknum. Kannski vilja menn nota tkifri til a ra Palestnu yfir hausmtunum gyingi sem var vsa r landi slandi fyrir 78 rum san? Hva var um slenska gestrisni.

Rottberger sjlfur hefur mestan huga a heimskja grafir mmu sinnar, Helene Mann, og murbrur sns, Hans Mann.

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Felix samt tveimur barnabarna sinna veislunni gr.

img_3743b.jpgur en gengi var veislusal Freiburg gr kom hn "Ilse", og sng vsur og eina mjg blauta, enda Ilse httunum eftir hvaa karli sem er og tilkynnti a allan mgulegan og mgulegan htt. Vakti etta neitanlega mikla ktnu gesta. Einstaklega gott uppistand hj Frulein Ilse. Hn hefi rugglega ekkert mti v a f bo til slands, ar sem hn gti n sr sveitamann (Framsknargaur) og tugta hann aeins til og tt me honum brn og buru egar hn vri ekki a vo ryki og ml steinana mefram vegunum hvta.

Vona g a slensk stjrnvld endurskoi kvrun sna, ea einhver nnur stofnun, t.d. slenska jkirkjan sem a mestu agi unnu hlji sta ess a hjlpa gyingum, og bji Felix Rottberger og konu hans til slands, til a sna a hann s velkominn til ess litla lands sem sem svo ltilmtlega vsai honum og fjlskyldu hans r landi fyrir 78 rum san.

a er ekkert a ttast hann er ekki terroristi frekar en 99,99999 prsent allra flttamanna. eir sem hatast t tlendinga nau eru hinir snnu hryjuverkamenn.

Felix Rottberger er n riddari

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tilefni af afmli Felix Rottberger var honum veitt riddaratign skalandi. Ekki vri dnalegt ef Guni Th. Jhannesson forseti slands gti s til ess a einn ltill flki flygi brjsti Felix egar hann loks kemur til landsins - ar sem hann fddist - en ar sem mtti ekki eiga heima.

skaland, ska rki, hefur n veitt honumVerdienstkreuz am Bande og v fylgir riddaratign - og mun hann taka vi nafnbtinni vi athfn Berln nstunni. Hr m lesa rkin fyrir essum heiri og ar er slands vitaskuld geti - n ess aningsverk stjrnvalda s nefnt. slensk yfirvld ltu au dnsku vita, a ef Danir vildu ekki skjta skjlshsi yfir fjlskylduna, borgai sland fyrir brottvsun eirra fr Danmrku til skalands. J, voru menn svo sannarlega tilbnir a borga.

g ska Felix innilega tilhamingju me riddaratignina, og ef sland getur ekki boi riddurum fddum slandi til landsins, er g hrddur um a sland s andlegu fliskeri statt. Hugsi um a essum sunnudegi.

Felix Rottberger, Freiburg im Breisgau
Verdienstkreuz am Bande

Der ehemalige Mitarbeiter der jdischen Gemeinde in Freiburg hat sich als Zeitzeuge bei der Erinnerungsarbeit groe Verdienste erworben. 1935 flohen seine Eltern vor dem NS-Regime zuerst nach Island, wo er geboren wurde, 1938 mit ihm weiter nach Dnemark. Dort musste er sich getrennt von seinen Eltern verstecken und lebte in stndiger Angst, entdeckt zu werden. Um die Auswirkungen von Rassismus und Nationalismus zu verdeutlichen, geht Felix Rottberger seit langem in Schulen und Begegnungssttten, diskutiert mit jungen Menschen ber die Zeit des Nationalsozialismus und schildert eindringlich das Verfolgungsschicksal seiner Familie. Zudem bietet er fr Schulklassen und Gruppen immer wieder Fhrungen in der Synagoge und auf dem jdischen Friedhof in Freiburg an, bei denen er auch anschaulich jdische Sitten und Gebruche vermittelt. Mit seinem groen persnlichen Einsatz hat Felix Rottberger in Freiburg eine besondere "Kultur des Miteinander" geprgt.

img_3806_1292835.jpgHeidi Rottberger, eiginkona Felix Rottberger, tilkynnir gestum, me trin augunum, a eiginmaur hennar hafi hloti Verdienstkreuz skalands og hann akkai henni og sagist aldrei hafa geta ori a n hennar, enda er Heidi hans hans stra hjlparhella og hefur bori 5 brn eirra hjnanna. Myndina efst tk g byrjun mnaarins, er Felix var fer Danmrku og hlt fyrirlestur eyjunni Mn. Ljsm. Vilhjlmur rn Vilhjlmsson


Sgunni gefur enginn gri

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a er ekkert ntt a slendingar sendi flttamenn til Noregs, a s dag gert me skrri tilvsun til gildandi laga, slenskra sem aljlegra. slendingar sendu fyrst flttamann, sem yfirvld vildu ekki slandi, til Noregs ri 1938, en var a lgleysa (sj hr).

Myndin efst er fangamynd af manninum sem vsa var r landi ri 1938, fyrst til Noregs og sar til Danmerkur. Myndin var hins vegar tekin sla rs 1940 egar Danir freistuu ess a afhenda hfu flttamannsins og fjlda annarra hans sporum silfurfati til jverja, svo a jverjar hefu alls ekki bei um a f ennan mann ea flesta ara sem Danir kvu upp eigi frumkvi a selja hendur nasista. Danir gerust strax aumjkir jnar erlends afls landi snu. Sumir danskir sagnfringar halda v fram dag, a samvinna danskra yfirvalda vi skaland Hitlers eftir 9. aprl 1940 hafi veri Dnum og gyingum til gs. a er ljst dmi um sambland plitskrar brenglunar og erfileika Dana almennt vi a horfast augu vi ljtari hluta sgu sinnar.

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Maurinn myndinni, sem var skur gyingur, var sem betur fr ekki sendur til skalands, v jverjar vildu ekki sj hann. Hann bjargai sr ri 1943 til Svjar, en bj sar eftir str Horsens Danmrku (sj meira hr). Hins vegar tkst Dnum eftir mikinn hamagang a senda 21 gying dauann (sj hr).

En hinir fnu, dnsku sagnfringar sem flestir hafa menningarlegar rtur flokknum Radikale Venstre, og sem telja samvinnuna vinasismann heillar, minnast vissulega ekki einu ori hin dnsku rkismor gyingum verkum snum.

Fagur er s vilji margra slendinga a setja til hliar aljlegu samykktir ntmans sem eir hafa undirrita varandi flttaflk. En kirkjugriaviburur prestanna, og a v er sagt fr biskups, Laugarneskirkju var ekki neinum til gagns og sst a llu eim sem vsa var r landi. Persnulega vill s sem etta skrifar a a slendingar hjlpi flki vanda - a v marki sem a er hgt fyrir litla j. En margt ber a hafa huga.

slenska kirkjan gat v miur heldur ekki hjlpa ri 1938 egar gyingnum Alfred Kempner var vsa r landi (sj hr). voru engin gri gefin. ri 1938 voru heldur ekki til au lg sem uru til vegna moranna 6 milljnum ttingja Kempners, sem "strmerkileg" j Evrpu kva a trma og a me dyggri hjlp milljna ba meal flestra ja Evrpu. Reyndar leitai Kempner ekki til slensku kirkjunnar, og mr vitandi var enginn kirkjunnar maur, slenskur, svo raunsr og mikill sr a lta sig ml hans vara. Sigurbjrn Einarsson sagi meiningu sna nasistum mean arir gu. a urfti japanskan prest, fr landi ar sem flttaflk fr heldur ekki nein gri, til a eygja ann mguleika a leita na vi frnar- og fyrirgefningaraltari kirknanna.

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Ekki voru teknar myndir af handtku Alfreds Kempners ri 1938. Menn vera a lta sr ngja hugsn hfundar. En kvikmyndin sem tekin var og utan vi Laugarneskirkju mun hins vegar vallt minna okkur a miskunnarleysi var enn vi vld slandi ri 2016. Framgangur kirkjunnar mlinu var skrtinn. sta ess a beita sr fyrir mtmlum kirkjunnar almennt, leggst biskup kirkjugriaager sem endai mjg sorglega.

Tvmenningarnir, flttamennirnir fr rak, sem starfsmenn kirkjunnar tluu a veita gri, koma fr landi ar sem yfirlstur vilji allra eirra sem berast banaspjt er a a trma gyingum og rki eirra srael, sem stofna var af eim sem lifu af sust morlduna Evrpu. Gyingahatur er v miur a lm sem sameinar mismunandi fylkingar mslma. Flestir mslma er sammla um a kenna gyingum og t.d. Bandarkjamnnum og Bretum um allar snar farir. Margt flk Vesturlndum er einnig sammla essu og kallar lmt eyingu sraelsrkis, og til er flk sem v eli styur fgasamtk og hryjuverk til da - jafnvel flk lknasttt. Er nema von a blessu ntmakirkjan hrpi a sama og verji menn sem ugglaust vilja trmingu eina lrisrkisins Miausturlndum, sraels, tt vandi flttamannanna fr rak og t.d. Srlandi s fyrst og fremst heimatilbinn og til kominn vegna haturs innan trarbraga eirra og fgahugsjna.

Kristin kirkjan, og ar g vi allar deildir hennar, hefur eins og vi vitum ofstt gyinga san Kristnin var til. i sem tknrnan htt hafi ti gyinginn Jess og drukki bl hans hafi vonandi hugsa t a hva s tknrna athfn ykkar ir. En glejist, allt er himnalagi. Ykkur er llum fyrirgefi af trnni. Tknrnt gyingat gefur nefnilega egar upp er stai fyrirgefningu syndanna. Fyrirgefning syndanna var sett inn Kristindm og slam til a rttlta kvin um a fjarlga sem fylgdu tr eirri (Gyingdmi) sem var afritu og skrumskld svo klunnalegan htt. Kristnir menn hmuust v meira en 1800 r gegn gyingum og mslmar eru enn a, v eygja 70 jmfrr parads a launum.

Flttamennirnir tveir fr rak Laugarneskirkju eru vissulega ekki jafnsaklausir og Alfred Kempner var forum. Alfred Kempner kom flsuum skilrkjum til landsins og laug ekki til um aldur sinn.

En ykkur, sem vildu essa menn r landi og tali eins og eir sem vildu fyrir enga mundi gyinga slandi 4. ratug sustu aldar, verur svo sannarlega fyrirgefi. Ef i tri mr ekki og eru ekki bin a henda t biblunni, gluggi guspjllin eirra Mattheusar 26, 26-29, Marksar 14, 22-25, Lkasar 22, 17-20 og ekki sst fyrra brf hins samkynhneiga Pls postula til Korintumanna 11, 23-26. Eins er nr alveg viss um a norska kirkjan, sem ekki kom 765 norskum gyingum til hjlpar sara stri, muni veita tvmenningunum gri kirkju snum fyrst eir fengu ekki a vera slandi kostna Biskupsstofu. Fr biskup gti lklega bara haft samband vi biskupakollega sna Noregi og sagt eim a veita eim gri. Fyrstoluveldin Arabu hjlpa aeins hryjuverkamnnum, er frilegur mguleiki v a eina oluveldi Norurlndum hjlpi flttamnnum.

En ekkert er sem sagt a ttast hinsta degi. Ykkur verur nefnilega llum fyrirgefnar syndir ykkar, gyingamorin, tvskinnungurinn og kalinn gar flttamanna. Mslmar sem brennt hafa kirkjur eru lka allgum mlum. Ef i hmi sfellu ykkur hold og bl Jess meistara yar er ykkur borgi. a er hreinsandi matur og hentugur vi ll tkifri.

Veri ykkur a gu og megi tvskinnungurinn, obltungshtturinn og hinn heilagi vnandi standa ykkur alla lei fr koki niur rassgat. Sgulaus j vart anna skili.


Dummheit ist: Glauben, genug zu wissen

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egar tlendingar voru fir slandi, su sumir slendingar gyinga hverju horni. gyingar vru lngum ekki velkomnir slandi, frekar en flttaflk dag, tldu margir slendingar sig snemma vita hverjir vri gyingur og hverjir ekki. slendingar vissu annig allt um alla, jafnvel eir tluu ekki vi tlendingana - og a hefur greinileg ekkert breyst a v er g best f s.

"Gyingurinn" Tierney

annig kom t.d. til landsins seinni hluta 19. aldar kaupmaur fr Leith Skotlandi sem Tierney ht sem seldi slendingum gamla garma. Tierney essi var baptisti, en hann var strax settur gyingastimpill. Menn tldu vst a engir arir en gyingar seldu ftklingum "gmul pestarft" fr Evrpu. g sagi fr essum manni bloggi ri 2013 og rum sem fengu gyingastimpilinn slandi, og hef n frtt a hinn mikli maur Thor Jensen hafi veri blvanlega vi "gyinginn" Tierney og a Tierney s afgreiddur sem gyingur sgu Borgarness. Frari menn hafa einnig sett gyingastimpilinn Thor Jensen, tt albrir brir hans Alfred Jensen Raavad Danmrku (sjhr og hr) hafi veri gyingahatari og afkomendursystkina hans hafi barist fyrir Danmrku SS. Alfred Jensen hefi einnig veri litkur hir nverandi forstisrherra slands a teikna hs gmlum stl til a frigja jernisminnimttarkenndina.

Hriflu-Jnas hittir Antu sumari 1934

bla_amannaheimsokn.jpgEinn helsti forsvarsmaur hreinnar, slenskrar menningar var Jnas fr Hriflu. Hann vildi lkt og Hermann Jnasson, flokksbrir hans, helst hafa hr hreint og skyldleikarkta bl. Lklega hefur hann heldur ekkert skinbrag bori "vininn" tt hann sti vi hliina honum. Reyndar veit g ekki til ess a Jnas hafi lti t r sr yri um gyinga, lkt og msir arir menn slandi geru 4. ratug sustu aldar - og sar.

myndinni hr fyrir ofan, (sem m stkka til muna ef menn kunna a), m sj Jnas me fngulegri konu, sem heimstti sland ri 1934. Kona essi var fdd Rmenu ri 1902 og ht Anita Joachim (sar Anita Joachim-Daniel).

Anita var gyingur. Hn vann sem blaamaur skalandi fyrir str og var fer slandi fyrir Associated Press samt hinum heimsfrga hollenska blaaljsmyndara Wim van de Poll sem tk frbrar myndir slandi sem n m sj vef jskalasafns Hollands den Haag.

Mogginn eys af eitri snu hausti 1934

Lklega hefur Hriflu-Jnasi tt unga konan i fnguleg og ekkert haft mti v a vera eilfaur me henni fyrir framan Hrasklann a Laugarvatni. Nokkrum mnuum sar tti hins vegarritstjra Morgunblasins a vi hfi a lkja Framsknarmnnum vi gyinga og ritai essi leiindi leiara blasins ann 25. oktber: "

"Oftast er mli sett annig fram, a eir, sem ori hafa fyrir ,,grimdari nazistanna" sjeu drlingar einir, sem ekkert hafi til saka unni anna en a a vera af rum jflokki en nazista-,,blarnir". N er a vita a ska jin stendur fremstu r um mentun og alla menningu. ess vegna verur Gyingahatur eirra mnnum algerlega skiljanlegt, ef v er tra a hinir ofsttu hafi ekkert til saka unni. Hjer er ekki tiltlunin a bera blak af skum stjrnvldum hvorki fyrir meferina Gyingum nje pltskum andstingum snum. En hafa Gyingarnir skalandi ekkert unni til saka? J, eir vru flug hagsmunaklka landinu, rki rkinu, ,,askotadr, nokkurskonar ,,setuli", sem hafi lag a ota snum tota altaf og alstaar ar sem feitt var stykkinu Hatri jflokknum stafar af v, a einstakir menn af Gyingatt hfu misbeitt msan htt eirri astu, sem jflagi veitti eim. a er rauninni hatri klkuskapnum, sem hjer er ori a jhatri."

Ritstjri Morgunblasins ri 1934 lauk essari frumstu haturstlu sinni me essum orum:

,,ska Gyingahatri er sprotti af v, a einstaki menn ess jflokks, ttu hafa rangt vi leiknum. - a er erfitt a fyrirbyggja a, a andin snist til fga, ef v fer fram a rangltir menn og jhollir vaa uppi jfjelgunum. Og v efni skiftir a engu mli, hvort eir eru ttair fr Jersalem ea Hriflu.'' (Sjhr )

Skyldi a vera svo a slenska haldi hafi alltaf veri verstu gyingahatararnir slandi?

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Heimskonan Anita borar afdaladesertinn skyr. myndinni hr fyrir nean m sj Anitu me Gumundi Finnbogasyni og Jni Leifs jminjasafninu Safnahsinu vi Hverfisgtu (n jmenningarhsinu). Vart hefur maur s glsilegri mynd r gamla Safnahsinu.

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Dummheit ist: Glauben, genug zu wissen

Anita blessunin fli tmanlega til Bandarkjanna, v lkt og vitgrannir vinstri menn og fgamslmar gera gyingum lfi leitt dag, hamaist Hitler eim eim rum. Bandarkjunum hlt hn fram ritstrfum ar til hn andaist v stra landi mguleikanna ri 1978 - Hn ritai og gaf t fjlda ferabka ritrinni "I am going to" sem komu t ensku og sumar sku Basel Sviss. seinni rum hefur hn kk s veraldarvefnum ori ekkt fyrir essa fleygu setningu, motti sem g hef lengi fylgt: "Dummheit ist nicht: wenig wissen. Auch nicht: wenig wissen wollen. Dummheit ist: glauben, genug zu wissen."

egar greint var fr myndum Wim van de Poll hinni gtu vefsuLemrnum og einnig Reykjavk.com ri 2012 hefu blamennirnir n mtt fylgja ofangreindu motti Antu. Myndir hollensk listaljsmyndara heilla slendinga v eir sj slendinga, en eim er djfuls sama um tlendingana sem mrgum myndanna voru. annig hefur "What do you think about Iceland-afstaa slendinga alltaf veri. Ekkert bitasttt var v skrifa um Anitu Joachim ea Wim de Poll egar flk komst fyrst myndirnar fr fr heimsskn eirra slandi ri 2012.

nl-hana_2_24_14_02_0_190-0456_1275124.jpgTil dmis er essi mynd af stlku lst svona Reykjavik.com af breskri konu sem ltur mli r snum snum rnga menningarkassa: "I wonder what this young lady pictured below was listening to; perhaps it was the golden age classic My Baby Just Cares for Me by Ted Weems and his Orchestra. We may never know, but it does make for a cracking soundtrack to go with these fabulous photos!"

Stlkan myndinni kallai sjlfa sig Daisy og var ekki htisht slensk og gti alveg eins hafa veri a hlusta ska ea danska slagara feragrammfninum frekar en eittva engilsaxneskt raul.

Fyrst egar skur rithfundur, Anne Siegel, las um ferir de Polls og Anitu Joachim til slands, var fari aeins dpra efni en pennar Lemrsins, en Siegel er hins vegar fyrirmuna a greina fr uppruna Anitu Joachims lkt og hn athyglisverriskldsgu sinni um skar konur slandi eftir str fer kringum a eins og kttur um heitan grautinn af hverju r sku komu yfirleitt til slands. Mtti halda a r hafi allar veri a leita a afdalarmantk. a er enn skrifu saga og fer grfina me eim flestum ef fjlskyldur eirra kunna ekki v betri deili forsgu sku mranna og ttingja eirra gamla landinu sem rstai Evrpu. slendingar hafa lklegast miklu frekar huga v hva eim fannst um sland, frekar en a vilja vita einhver deili eim.

Ach so, ar sannast aftur gi ora Anitu: Dummheit ist: Glauben, genug zu wissen.

Blessu s minning Anitu Joachim-Daniels! Hn vissi sko snu viti.

anita_joachim_and_wim_van_de_pol_1275126.jpgAnita Joachim og Willem van de Poll slandi.

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MeistariWillem van de Poll (1895-1970) var a taka mynd af r, n ess a vissir af v. Hn verur birt hr a nean athugasemdum, nema a hafir veri a lesa bloggi mitt nakin/nakinn.


Help build the Or HaTzafon Synagogue in Reykjavk

In memory of all the Jews whom Iceland closed her doors on in the 1930s, as well as those who were expelled from Iceland to Nazi-Germany - and honouring the few Jews who made it to Iceland, who never dared practise their religion due to prejudice in the Icelandic society, I seek support from Israeli based firms and others who support the state of Israel, asking them to support the building of the very first synagogue in Iceland, which I find appropriate to call the Or HaTzafon synagogue - The Reykjavk synagogue of the Northern Lights - Samkunduhs Norurljsanna in Icelandic.

The numbers of Jews in Iceland is steadily growing. Jews with very different backgrounds settle in Iceland. Jewish tourists are also numerous in Iceland all year round. Seders and other religious gatherings have been held regularly in Reykjavk - in later years in co-operation with the Chabad movement. Now is the time for a synagogue in Reykjavk.

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(1) Otto Weg (Ott Arnaldur Magnsson) a refugee from Leipzig, who despite his Ph.D. degrees never obtained a job in his field in Iceland. The University of Iceland, which was lead by two Nazi sympathising deans took care of that (2) Hans Mann (Chanoch ben Zelig/Hans Jakobsson), nearly got expelled from Iceland together with his mother (3) Helena Lea Mann. Olga (Mann) Rottberger (4), Hans Manns sister and Helenas daughter was expelled from Reykjavk, Iceland with her husband Hans Rottberger(5) and two children.

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In 1937 at a party in the Danish Embassy in Reykjavk the Prime Minister of Iceland Hermann Jnasson (1), said to a Danish diplomat in Iceland, C.A.C. Brun (2), who assisted many Jews harassed by Icelandic authorities: "It is a Principal issue, Iceland has always been a clean Nordic country free from Jews, and those who have have come into the country in recent years have to leave". The son of Jonasson, Steingrmur Hermannsson, was also a politician and a supporter of Yasser Arafat in Tunisia (see here) and Jnassons grandson, Gumundur Steingrmsson, is the former chairman of the party Bjrt Framt (Bright Future), which was one of the parties which voted for the Boycott of Israel in Reykjavk. Also present in the Danish Embassy in 1937 was Thor Thors (3) who later became Icelands ambassador in Washington. With his speech at the UN assembly, co-authored with Abba Eban, he played an important role in the UN recognition of Israel in 1948.

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Two of Icelands major authors in the 20th century, Gumundur Kamban and Gunnar Gunnarsson were Nazis. Many Icelander are in denial of that fact. Here you can see Gunnar Gunnarsson leaving a meeting with Hitler in March 1940 together with Hinrich Lohse (with raised arm), the German who was responsible for the the ghettoization of the Jews of Latvia.


Remembering the victims of Icelandic anti-Semitism

Several families and individuals, who made it to Iceland as refugees in the late 1930s, were expelled from Iceland. The expulsions were ordered by the ministry of Justice and executed by the Reykjavk city Police, which in 1939 was lead by an Icelandic Nazi, Agnar Kofoed Hansen, who as a part of his training spent a summer in a SS-training unit in Germany.

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Some of the ugly Icelandic racist faces of the past: (1) Bjrn Sv. Bjrnsson, a member of the Waffen SS, the son of the first president of the Icelandic Republic. He was rescued from prosecution in Denmark and lived many years in Argentina (2) Agnar Kofoed Hansen, an Icelandic Nazi, chief of Police in Reykjavk 1939. He received training with the SS in Germany (3) Dav lafssson, a member of Icelandic Nazi Party studied in Nazi Germany (1936-1939) without obtaining any degrees; After WWII he was a MP and the director of the National Bank of Iceland (4)Nazis marching in Reykjavk. (5) Sigurjn Sigursson. Member of the Icelandic Nazi party. Sigursson was the Chief of the Reykjavik Police 1947-1985. Reykjavks Anti-Semitic history is not a new phenomenon.

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Nazis marching in Reykjavk, a city with a dark past.

In the future the Or HaTzafon Synagogue in Reykjavk would be a proper way of remembering and honouring the victims of Icelandic anti-Semitism in the past and the present. A vibrant Jewish life in Reykjavk is the only way to fight the hate which has been burning in Reykjavk since Jews tried to find safe haven in this little/big city of Iceland before WWII.

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(1) Karl Kroner, a Jewish doctor from Germany, who treated Hitler in WWI, was expelled from Iceland. He managed to get to the USA with his German wife and son. (2-3) Dr. Felix Fuchs and Dr. Stefanie Karpeles Fuchs of Vienna were expelled from Iceland. They fled to Copenhagen, from where they managed to sail with the last ship from Gothenburg in Sweden to the US, before Denmark was occupied by the Germans. (4) Alfred Kempner of Leipzig was expelled from Reykjavk to Copenhagen. The Icelandic authorities wrote to the Copenhagen Police that Iceland would pay for his further transport to Germany if that was necessary. These people survived the Holocaust but several Jews from Austria, Germany and Poland, who tried to get to Iceland, didnt. They sent letters to the authorities in Reykjavk and the Icelandic embassy in Copenhagen as well as Danish consulates in Poland, Austria and Germany. They were denied help, BECAUSE THEY WERE JEWISH, but at the same time Iceland opened its doors to German and Norwegian workers. These Jews are the reason why there should be a synagogue in Iceland!

Why support from Israel?

Few days ago the Reykjavk City Council passed a motion which bans any use of Israeli products in the City of Reykjavk. The boycott was supposed to benefit the Palestinian people. When the City council realised that this sad and ridiculous move would hit Reykjavk harder than it would ever affect Israel, it was retracted for re-consideration.

There was a of course a great amount of hypocrisy of the Reykjavk city majority ruling. Therefore a building of a synagogue in Reykjavk with financial support from Israeli firms and organisation as well as organisations and individuals that support Israel, is important. What is more natural in such a free and understanding city like Reykjavk, to allow the building of a synagogue, where Jews can pray and peace can be respected.

Few years ago the Reykjavk City Council passed a motion which allows Icelandic Muslims to build a mosque in Reykjavk. That was a very understandable move taking into account that few extremist Muslims in Iceland, who fraternised with the US Embassy in Reykjavik, already had bought a house of prayer, where support to extremism is cherished. They were supported by extreme groups in Saudi-Arabia. The City Council of Reykjavk even donated a very good plot for the new alleged non-extremist mosque in Reykjavk. Allegedly support for the building of the first mosque in Iceland comes from the authorities and financial giants in Saudi Arabia. Such a mosque is of course necessary for all the Syrian refugees which Icelanders, who incidentally also are against circumcision of boys, ritual slaughter and Israel, now want to invite to Iceland.

Has anythin changed since the 1930s? No, when Israeli products are banned from the small North Atlantic capital city, while some Icelander find it acceptable for Icelandic Muslims to chant Dammed Jews (Icel. Helvtis Gyingar) at rallies, where there are no Jews but only Icelandic supporters of Israel, there is still a problem in Reykjavk. A problem, which will very likely only be solved by a synagogue in Reykjavk.

Support the building of a Synagogue in Iceland

All those who love Israel should support the building of a Synagogue in Reykjavk. The location for the Synagogue could easily be right in front of the Town Hall of Reykjavk, where there are free plots. Certainly one of them can be used to honour those who were victims of Icelandic Nazis and anti-Semitic Politicians and officials. A monument remembering the victims of atrocities committed by Icelandic Nazi policemen, politicians and anti-Semitic public figures could be erected beside the synagogue.

Please pass this on to those who financially would like to support a synagogue in Reykjavk. If support is found, a foundation would be created in Reykjavk, lead by a committee of Jews in Iceland and Israel and hopefully the construction could begin in the near future, aided also by the Reykjavk City council in the same manner it facilitated the planned mosque of Reykjavk for not to mention the Russian Orthodox church, soon to be built i down-town Reykjavk.

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(1-2) While Jews couldnt find safe haven in Iceland, an Estonian war criminal could. Evald Mikson (who adapted the the name Evald Hinriksson in Iceland) had a good life in Iceland. When Dr. Efraim Zuroff of the The Simon Wiesenthal Center in Jerusalem in the early 1990s asked for an investigation into Miksons crimes, Icelandic Politicians collaborated with Estonian politicians to halt the investigations. Left wing politicians, among them a socialist Mayor of Reykavk, attacked Israel and argued that Mikson was an innocent man and a victim of an Israeli/Jewish man-hunt. An independent Estonian historical commission has since confirmed the crimes of Evald Mikson. (3) Ruth Rubin, one of Miksons victims. According to witnesses she was raped by Mikson in a Tallinn prison before she was shot. (4 and 5) Jn Baldvin Hannibalsson, formerly Icelands foreign Minister and Icelands ambassador to the USA, as well as the Icelandic hero in the independence process of the Baltic States. Despite a high fall from his political podium after it became known that he had sexually harassed minors, this man is still a star in the Baltic States and regularly attacks Israel and Jews in the Icelandic media.

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(1) Due to anti-Israel and anti-Semitic sentiments among the Left in Iceland, this is the most usual way of seeing Israel's flag in Iceland. (2) Former World Champion Chess Master Bobby Fischer, and a anti-Semite got a special Icelandic citizenship and lived in Reykjavk for the rest of his life spewing vicious hatred of Jews of the Internet (3) Sign in a bike-repair shop in Reykjavk saying Jews are not welcome. A caravan rental in Reykjavk also excluded Jews as their customers (4) The "bike-Nazi", who put up the sign about Jews not being welcome in his shop (5) During an anti-Semitic exhibition at a Reykjavk art gallery a young Jewish couple from the US discovered this drawing on a blackboard on which guests at the exhibition were asked to express their feeling about Israel.This perversion is also an Icelandic product.

Further Reading:

Gerstenfeld, Manfred (2015) Icelands Anti-Semitism is Not New, It Just Resurfaced. An op-ed in Arutz Sheva / Israel National News Op-ed. published 20 September 2015.

Vilhjlmsson, Vilhjlmur rn (2004) Iceland, the Jews, and Anti-Semitism, 1625-2004, Jewish Political Studies Review 16:3-4.

Idem (2005). Medaljens Bagside - jdiske flygtningeskbner i Danmark 1933-1945. Forlaget Vandkunsten, Copenhagen. (In Danish)

Idem (2015). The first Jewish services in Iceland 1940-1943. Fornleifur an archaeological and historical blog written by the author).

Zuroff, Efraim 2002, Operation Last Chance: One Mans Quest to Bring Nazi Criminals to Justice. See also here and here for correct information on war criminal Evald Mikson in Iceland.


Til minningar um Lionel Cohen og Meyer Bubis

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Sari heimsstyrjld er einnig hluti af slandssgunni, tt sumum lti sr ftt um finnast. etta er brot af ljsmynd sem tekin var Reykjavk 12. oktber 1940. Maurinn myndinni fll Frakklandi sumari 1942.

ri 1994 birtist hpmyndin hr fyrir nean Jewish Chronicle Englandi. g hafi bei blai um a birta hana von um a einhverjir ekktu sem sitja fyrir hpmyndinni. Sigurur Gumundsson ljsmyndari tk myndirnar og arar af gyingunum Gtt Frigingardeginum (Jom Kippur) Reykjavk hausti 1940. g fkk brf fr nokkrum tttakendum og ttingjum eirra hermanna sem lifu sar heimsstyrjld af.

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Einn eirra sem ritai mr var Maurice Kaye i Bournemouth Englandi, sem sagist vera maurinn mir lengst tilvinstri me hnd mannsins fyrir ofan xl sr. Hann skrifai a hanni hefi verileikfimiskennari herdeildar sinnar Reykjavk.

g st san eirri tr a etta vri Maurice Kaye og sami maurinn sem einnig sst myndinni efst, og hef g upplst etta greinum sem g hefskrifa um fyrstu samkomu gyinga slandi.

gst 2014 s g, a haldi var upp 80 ra brkaupsafmli Maurice Kayes og konu hans Helen. Flest helstu bl og fjlmilar Englands greindu fr essum merka fanga lfi samlyndra hjn (sj t.d. hr). ar birtist brkaupsmynd af eim hjnum fr 1934 og sannast sagna fannst mr hann ekkert lkur manninum myndinni fr Reykjavk, sem hann sagist vera. Maurinn myndunum Gtt er heldur ekki Maurice Kaye. San kom g fyrir stuttu san algjrlega fyrir tilviljun inn bloggi Ellin Bessner, og s hvers elis var. lionel_cohen_toronto.jpglionel_cohen_close.jpg

maurice_kaye.jpgTvr efri myndirnar eru af Lionel Cohen, en nesta myndin er af Maurice Kaye er hann kvntist Lundnum ri 1934. Maurice var bleygur er fjlmilar greindu fr 80 ra brkaupsafmli hans ri 2014. Maurinn sem hann telur sig vera myndinni fr 1940 var svarteygur og raun ekkert lkur Maurice Kaye.

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Maurinn myndinni efst, sem tk tt Jom Kippur samkomunni Reykjavk 1940, var Lionel Cohen, Kanadamaurfr Toronto, f. 12. aprl 1912. Hann kom til slands sem breyttur hermaur me The Royal Regiment of Canada. ri 1942, ann 19. gst, fll hann aeins 31 rs a aldri vi Dieppe Frakklandi og er greftraur grafreit Dieppe Canadian War Cemetery, Hautot-sur-Mer (sjhr og hr). Hann var kvntur Rose, sar Richmond (1913-2005).

Hvar var Maurice Kaye?

N er g viss um a myndin er alls ekki af Maurice Kaye sem enn br Bournemouth Englandi 104 ra a aldri, heldur af Lionel Cohen. En vi nnari athugun eim mnnum sem ur hafa ekki veri greindir af sjlfum sr ea ttingjum tel g ljst aleikfimisjlfarinn Maurice Kaye standi hugsanlega efst hgri r vi hliina Kurt Zeisel, sem afkomendur slandi. Maurice Kaye gti hafa misminnt og hafa veri me vi sara tkifri. Kaye sagiri 2014 vi fjlmila, a hann hafi veri tv ra slandi og hafi veri rttajlfari, og a hann hafi veri sendur til slands eftir a hafa slegi mann andliti vegna andgyinglegra ummla. Hann sagist hafa veri var dmdur af herrtti til a fara til slands.bubis1.pngmeyer_bubis_1940.jpg

Meyer Bubis

Annar Kanadamaur fr Toronto, sem reyndar var fddur Bandarkjunum, var Meyer Bubis (f. 1914). Hann fll smuleiis Frakklandi. Hans var sakna eftir tkin vi Dieptte 19. gust 1942 var talinn af herstjrninni ann 1. nvember ri 1942. Hann kom einnig til slands jn 1940 og tk tt Jom Kippur-fstunni a r. Hrofar er mynd af honum slandi og r minningarbk um fallna kanadska hermenn.

Meyer Bubis fkk hpmynd fr Jom Kippur samkomunni Gtt hjSiguri Gumundssyni ljsmyndara og sendi myndina fur snum Salmon Toronto og skrifai aftan myndina:

"Pop, This is the first time in the history of Iceland that such a service has been held, Meyer. P.s. Take care of this for me, please. B66596 Pvt. M. Bubis, Royal Regiments Canada."

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Ljsmynd Meyer Bubis sem hann sendi fur snum Toronto. Tpum tveimur rum sar fll Meyer Bubis hinni misheppnuu rs vi Dieppe. Ontario Jewish Archives. Ljsm. Sigurur Gumundsson. [etta er ekki sama "skoti"/ramminn og myndin ofar]

Lionel Cohen og Meyer Bubis

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The Queen of Iceland

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Ungur gyingur fr Bronx, Milton Beck a nafni, var sumari 1941 sendur til slands til a jna landi snu me US Air Corps. Slk vist nrri norurplnum var erfi fyrir unga menn, og sr lagi sem voru eins kaflega stfangnir og Milton. Nei, Milton leit ekkert eftir "slenska stlka" eins og arir dtar. slandi hugsai hann dagana langa um hana Idu sna Horowitz heima Bronx.

Ida Horowitz var ung og efnileg stlka sem Milton hafi deita heima New York, ur en Oncle Sam sendi hann norur Ballarhaf. New York vann hann vi a aka trukkum og slandi hefur hann lkast til haldi v fram. Mean hann var fjarri gu gamni pakkai hn bindum bindaverksmiju.

Eins og gum dta smir, hafi hann mynd af henni uppi vi eins konar altari vi rmsti sitt, mean arir flagar hans voru me myndir af einhverjum merkilegum ljskum og gjlfiskvendum veggnum vi kojuna sinn brggunum.

the_command_seetheart.jpgSla rs 1942 fengu einhverjir prupiltanna ritstjrn The White Falcon, blas Bandarkjahers slandi, hugmynd, a efna til keppni sem eir klluu Command Sweatheart Hermenn Bandarkjahers slandi gtu sent inn ljs mynd af stinni sinni, krustu ea konu til a keppa um titilinn. Flagar Miltons lddust helgustu v hans og fengu lnaa mynd af Idu Horowitz og sendu hana keppnina. Og viti menn, Ida vann titilinn endaturfgur yngismey.

The White Falcon greindi fr essum sigri nokkrum klausum.

En bggull fylgir oft skammrifi. Frgin fr va og einnig heimilisfang Idu, sem var v miur birt fjlda dagblaa Bandarkjunum.

Hlaut Ida miki ni af essari vegsemd og tign og eitt af vandrum hennar voru au grynni af brfum, kortum og jafnvel pkkum sem brust heim litla b hennar, ar sem hn bj me mur sinni, hinni ftku saumakonu Gussie. Bnor og tilbo brust stlkunni fr nr gjrvllum herafla Bandarkjanna. Brf voru borin sekkjum heim til gyjunnar og hn fkk einnig titilinn "the Queen of Iceland". Menn bu hana um ljsmynd og eiginhandarritun, ef hn vildi ekki giftast eim.

Vitaskuld var Milton miur sn t af essu og eyddi meirihluta eirra tveggja ra sem hann dvaldi slandi a hugsa um a Ida hefi kannski teki tilboi einhvers riddara hvtum kadiljki.

Milton kvntist Idu ri 1943

Nei, Ida var Milt snum tr og er Milton kom heim og 1943 aprl ltu au rabbna pssa sig saman b foreldra hans. Var sagt fr v srstaklega blunum, svona aallega til ess a koma veg fyrir meira brfastand fr mnnum biilsbuxunum. Ida var farin a draga mtt r herafla BNA slandi og var me fegur sinni. "Maybe after Im married theyll stop" sagi hn me vonarneistann augunum vi New York Evening Post ri 1943 (myndin af hjnakornunum efst birtist New York Evening Post ri 1943).

Smtt og smtt httu brfin a berast Idu Bronx. Milton og Ida hldu san t lfi, og fer greinilega engum sgum af lfi eirra eftir etta ...nema a mig grunar a au hafi flust til Florida ellinni og a ar hafi Milton fengi slag fyrir sitt afbrissama hjarta um 1985 er Ida dansai tvisvar sinnum vi Chuck Leibowitz, en eins tel g vst a Ida hafi stunda bing og ta chi anga til hn sameinaist Milton snum aftur sjunda himni. En g veit auvita ekki neitt um a.

au gtu ess vegna veri enn lfi. gefa au sig fram, ef au googla sig og uppgtva a au eru orin a friuum fornleifum Fornleifi.


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